Commercial building home Processing Devices
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The most important promise made by the proprietors of 5G wireless technology -- the telecommunications service providers, the transmission equipment makers, the antenna manufacturers, and even the server manufacturers -- is this: Once all of 5G's components are fully deployed and operational, you will not need any kind of wire or cable to deliver communications or even entertainment service to your mobile device, to any of your fixed devices HDTV, security system, smart appliances , or to your automobile.
If everything works, 5G would be the optimum solution to the classic "last mile" problem: Delivering complete digital connectivity from the tip of the carrier network to the customer, without drilling another hole through the wall.
Also: Should 5G be in your IT budget? The "if" in that previous sentence remains colossal. The whole point of "Gs" in wireless standards, originally, was to emphasize the ease of transition between one wireless system of delivery and a newer one -- or at least make that transition seem reasonably pain-free. Not that any transition has ever been a trip to the fair.
Once complete, the 5G transition plan would constitute an overhaul of communications infrastructure unlike any other in history. Imagine if, at the close of the 19th century, the telegraph industry had come together in a joint decision to implement a staged transition to fax. That's essentially the scale of the shift from 4G to 5G. The real reason for this shift is not so much to get faster as to make the wireless industry sustainable over the long term, as the 4G transmission scheme is approaching unsustainability faster than the industry experts predicted.
The revolution, like all others, will be subsidized. The initial costs of these 5G infrastructure improvements may be tremendous, and consumers have already demonstrated their intolerance for rate hikes.
So to recover those costs, telcos will need to offer new classes of service to new customer segments, for which 5G has made provisions. Customers have to believe 5G wireless is capable of accomplishing feats that were impossible for 4G. To make the transition feasible in homes and businesses, telcos are looking to move customers into a 5G business track now, even before most true 5G services exist yet.
More to the point, they're laying the "foundations" for technology tracks that can more easily be upgraded to 5G, once those 5G services do become available. If you look at this whole thing about massive machine-type communications [mMTC], in the past it's been primarily the human either talking to a human or, when we have the internet, the human requesting services and experiences from software. Moving forward, we are going to have software as the requester, and that software is going to be talking to software.
So the whole dynamic of what services we're going to have to deliver through our networks, is going to change. If we're being honest now is always a good time to start , it's incorrect to say that 5G is the fifth generation of global wireless technology.
Depending upon whom you ask, and the context of the question, there are really either four or seven generations, and only three sets of global standards. There was never really an official "1G. The term "2G" is credited to Finnish engineers to characterize the technological leap forward that their GSM standard represented.
It was with the advent of 3G that the world started counting at the same digit. But even for 4G, there were competing standards, and two major groups of practitioners -- one for WiMAX, the other for the victorious LTE -- vying for global supremacy. The 5G effort has, so far, been successful at keeping the engineers together around the same table, contributing towards a single set of goals.
How 5G Will Transform Business. Read More. When 4G networks were launched in , smartphones popularized video consumption, and data traffic on mobile networks really exploded. It's truly an inflection point from the consumer to the industry. Today, 3GPP specifies which technologies constitute 5G wireless and, by exclusion, which do not. The 5G wireless standard aims to be global -- which is the hard part, because each participating country e.
In November , the US Federal Communications Commission began an auction for exclusive segments of spectrum in the 28 GHz band, soon to be followed by bids in the 24 GHz band, for exclusive use by the winning bidders. The following month, the FCC unanimously approved a plan to make more spectrum in the 37 GHz, 39 GHz, and 47 GHz bands available for the highest-speed communications tier for 5G wireless, called millimeter-wave mmWave.
But a good part of the 5G plan involves multiple, simultaneous antennas, some of which utilize spectrum that telcos agree to share with one another for instance, the 3. Among the technologies inside the 5G umbrella are systems enabling transmitters and receivers to arbitrate access to unused channels in the unlicensed spectrum, much the way It's vitally important not to confuse gigahertz GHz, which refers to frequency with gigabits Gb, which are quantities of transmitted data.
Data throughput speeds for 5G are, as with 4G, measured in gigabits per second Gbps. Just because 5G networks will operate at higher frequencies does not make it faster. Those higher frequencies are chosen mainly because they've not been used by anything else yet.
And this is where things will get very tricky down the road: Very high-frequency signals do not travel far at all, which is one reason why 5G cellular networks will be smaller, with more transmitters operating within denser cells. The majority of these efforts are in one of three categories:.
It was during the implementation of 4G that telcos realized they wished they had different grades of infrastructure to support different classes of service. By the end of , the organization expects to declare a supplemental set of 5G standards called "Release The true purpose of 5G wireless, as you'll see momentarily, is to produce a global business model where expenses are lower and revenue from services is higher, on account of the presence of more and greater services than 4G could provision for.
So there is a valid argument, from a marketing standpoint, in favor of a gradual deconstruction of 4G branding. As consumers hear more and more about the onset of 5G, enumeration leaves them feeling more and more like their 4G equipment is old and obsolete. With so many technologies under the 5G umbrella -- home broadband, office broadband, home television, internet of Things, in-vehicle communication, as well as mobile phone -- there's no guarantee that, when it comes time, any consumer will choose the same provider for each one unless that consumer is willing to sign a contract beforehand.
That's why telcos are stepping up their 5G branding efforts now, including rolling out preliminary 4G upgrades with 5G monikers, and re-introducing the whole idea of 5G to consumers as a fuzzy, cloudy, nebulous entity that encapsulates a sci-fi-like ideal of the future.
From the beginning, we had the 1G, the 2G, the 3G, and the 4G. They were sort of leaps of differences, when it comes to speed and throughput. When we think about 5G, we think about 10 gigabits per second throughput, we talk about 10x battery life, we think about times more data volumes in the networks. It's just radically different. I would say it's a quantum leap compared to 4G. The first wave of 5G-branded services are effectively 4G, or 4G extensions, that place consumers on the right track for future 5G upgrades, thus guaranteeing the revenue sources that 5G will require to be successful, or if only to just break even.
The race to 5G: Inside the fight for the future of mobile as we know it. Morgan analyst characterized the then-business model for wireless providers in Southeast Asia as unsustainable, warning that the then-current system has rendered it impossible for carriers to keep up with customer demand.
The world's telcos need a different, far less constrained, business model than what 4G has left them with. The only way they can accomplish this is with an infrastructure that generates radically lower costs than the current scenario, particularly for maintaining, and mainly cooling, their base station equipment.
Read also: Stingray spying: 5G will protect you against surveillance. Cooling and the costs associated with facilitating and managing cooling equipment, according to studies from analysts and telcos worldwide, account for more than half of telcos' total expenses for operating their wireless networks.
Global warming which, from the perspective of meteorological instrumentation, is indisputable is a direct contributor to compound annual increases in wireless network costs. China Mobile's breakdown of its annual capital and operational expenditures for maintaining one 3G base station. The edition of a study by China Mobile , that country's state-licensed service provider, examined the high costs of maintaining energy-inefficient equipment in its 3G wireless network, which happens to be the largest on the planet in both territory and customers served.
In , CM estimated its network had consumed 14 billion kilowatt-hours kWh of electricity annually. That study proposed a new method of constructing, deploying, and managing network base stations.
Called Cloud architecture RAN C-RAN , it's a method of building, distributing, and maintaining transmitter antennas that history will record as having triggered the entire 5G movement.
One of the hallmarks of C-RAN cell site architecture is the total elimination of the on-site base band unit BBU processors, which were typically co-located with the site's radio head. That functionality is instead virtualized and moved to a centralized cloud platform, for which multiple BBUs' control systems share tenancy, in what's called the baseband pool.
The cloud data center is powered and cooled independently, and linked to each of the base stations by no greater than 40km of fiber optic cable. It also completely abolishes the principal source of heat generation inside the BS, making it feasible for much, if not all, of the remaining equipment to be cooled passively -- literally, by exposure to the open air. What's more, it takes less money to rent the site for a smaller base station than for a large one.
Granted, China may have a unique concept of the real estate market compared to other countries. Keep in mind, though, that China Mobile's figures pertained to deploying and maintaining 3G equipment, not 5G. But the new standards for transmission and network access, called 5G New Radio 5G NR , are being designed with C-RAN ideals in mind, so that the equipment never generates enough heat to trip that wire, requiring OpEx to effectively quadruple.
It would appear a lot of the success of 5G rests upon this new class of cloud data centers, into which the functionality of today's baseband units would move. As of now, there is still considerable uncertainty as to where this centralized RAN controller would reside. There are competing definitions. Some have taken a good look at the emerging crop of edge data centers sprouting adjacent to today's cell towers, and are suggesting that the new Service Oriented Core SOC could be distributed across those locations.
Yet skeptics are wondering, why bother with the elimination of the BTS station in the first place, if the SOC would only put it back? Alternately, a separate SOC station could be established that services dozens of towers simultaneously. The problem there, obviously, is that such a station would be a full-fledged data center in itself, which would have real estate and cooling issues of its own. Either option might be more palatable, some engineers believe, if the servers operating there could delegate computing infrastructure among internal operations and special customer services -- edge computing services that could compete with cloud providers such as Amazon and Microsoft Azure, by leveraging much lower latency.
The ability to do so is entirely dependent upon a concept called network slicing. This is the subdivision of physical infrastructure into virtual platforms, using a technique perfected by telecommunications companies called network functions virtualization NFV. Also: Microsoft Azure: Everything you need to know about Redmond's cloud service.
Exactly what routes these network slices would take through the infrastructure is completely up in the air. Others, such as the members of the Next Generation Mobile Networks Alliance NGMN , suggest that slices could effectively partition networks in such a way as suggested by the NGMN diagram above that different classes of user equipment, utilizing their respective sets of radio access technologies RAT , would perceive quite different infrastructure configurations, even though they'd be accessing resources from the same pools.
Another suggestion being made by some of the industry's main customers, at 5G industry conferences, is that telcos offer the premium option of slicing their network by individual customer. This would give customers willing to invest heavily in edge computing services more direct access to the fiber optic fabric that supports the infrastructure, potentially giving a telco willing to provide such a service a competitive advantage over a colocation provider, even one with facilities adjacent to a " carrier hotel.
Read also: Micro circuitry innovation needed to implement 5G. But depending upon whom one asks, slicing networks by customer may actually be impossible. There are diametrically split viewpoints on the subject of whether slicing could congregate telco functions and customer functions together on the same cloud. Some have suggested such a convergence is vitally necessary for 5G to fulfill the value proposition embodied in C-RAN.
Architects of the cloud platforms seeking to play a central role in the SOC, such as OpenStack and CORD , argue that this convergence is already happening, and the whole point of the architecture in the first place.
In a January statement, the company said it has already begun deployments of what it calls Multi-access Edge Compute MEC services with select customers, in some cases using existing 4G LTE connectivity.
The move will enable Bosch itself -- which was evidently aggravated with the pace of the network slicing argument -- to supply 5G wireless service to its own factories. If other major enterprises with large campuses follow Bosch's lead, the principal customers for network slicing services may exit the market before it even begins.
Despite what you may have read elsewhere, 5G is not exclusively a mobile wireless standard.
A New Class of Processors
The most important promise made by the proprietors of 5G wireless technology -- the telecommunications service providers, the transmission equipment makers, the antenna manufacturers, and even the server manufacturers -- is this: Once all of 5G's components are fully deployed and operational, you will not need any kind of wire or cable to deliver communications or even entertainment service to your mobile device, to any of your fixed devices HDTV, security system, smart appliances , or to your automobile. If everything works, 5G would be the optimum solution to the classic "last mile" problem: Delivering complete digital connectivity from the tip of the carrier network to the customer, without drilling another hole through the wall. Also: Should 5G be in your IT budget?
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The most common manual input devices are the keyboard and mouse. Other manual input devices include:. Each button on a concept keyboard relates to a particular item or function. Buttons can be labelled with text or a picture. Fast food restaurants often use concept keyboards because very little training is needed to operate them and they're efficient - a single button can order an entire meal. Used as an alternative to a mouse. To operate it the user rotates the ball which moves the pointer on screen.
Overview of Internet of Things
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Credit card processing is essential for small businesses today. In addition to being more convenient than cash and checks, card payments offer many other benefits for consumers and merchants alike. Let's take a closer look at the advantages of small business credit card processing, and answer the following questions:.
Manage All of Your Print Devices In One Place
Live Nation is the global leader in live entertainment that produces concerts, sells tickets, and connects brands to music. In Live Nation announced it was moving its global IT infrastructure to AWS in an effort to deliver better experiences to its customers. The company moved applications and servers to AWS within 17 months without adding headcount or budget.
Internet of Things IoT is a sprawling set of technologies and use cases that has no clear, single definition. One workable view frames IoT as the use of network-connected devices, embedded in the physical environment, to improve some existing process or to enable a new scenario not previously possible. These devices, or things , connect to the network to provide information they gather from the environment through sensors, or to allow other systems to reach out and act on the world through actuators. They could be connected versions of common objects you might already be familiar with, or new and purpose-built devices for functions not yet realized. They could be devices that you own personally and carry with you or keep in your home, or they could be embedded in factory equipment, or part of the fabric of the city you live in.
Smart Home Systems Based on Internet of Things
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A computer is a programmable device that can automatically perform a sequence of calculations or other operations on data once programmed for the task. It can store, retrieve, and process data according to internal instructions. A computer may be either digital, analog, or hybrid, although most in operation today are digital.
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Smart home systems achieved great popularity in the last decades as they increase the comfort and quality of life. Most smart home systems are controlled by smartphones and microcontrollers. A smartphone application is used to control and monitor home functions using wireless communication techniques. We explore the concept of smart home with the integration of IoT services and cloud computing to it, by embedding intelligence into sensors and actuators, networking of smart things using the corresponding technology, facilitating interactions with smart things using cloud computing for easy access in different locations, increasing computation power, storage space and improving data exchange efficiency.
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