Factory fabrication regenerate, crude rubbers, different glues, products from latexes, glues and gum
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PROSEA, Introduction to Exudates
There is very little production of 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane in the U. Any remaining production would likely be for on-site uses as a chemical intermediate, as a trace constituent with other chemicals, or as part of a waste stream in releases to the environment. In the past, 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane was used in large amounts to produce trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, and 1,2,-dichloroethylene.
It was also used as a solvent, in cleaning and degreasing metals, in paint removers, varnishes and lacquers, in photographic films, as an extractant for oils and fats, and in pesticides.
Limited occupational exposure to 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane may occur. It is also used as a solvent for chlorinated rubbers, fats, oils, waxes, and resins. Exposure to 1,1,2-trichloroethane may occur in the workplace where it is used as a solvent. It also has limited use as a solvent for plastics, oils, and fats, and is used as both a cleaning agent and a degreaser. Based on its industrial use, 1,1-dichloroethane is primarily released to the atmosphere, and people are potentially exposed to this chemical through the inhalation or ingestion of contaminated air or water.
However, because data available on production, import, export, use, and disposal are limited, it is difficult to estimate the potential for human exposure. It is also used in the production of polyvinylidene chloride copolymers. Air releases, primarily from emissions from polymer synthesis and fabrication industries, are the greatest source of ambient 1,1-dichloroethylene.
Occupational exposure to 1,1-dichloroethylene may occur by inhalation or dermal contact. It is also frequently used to produce dyes and textiles. The general population is exposed to 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene from inhalation of ambient air and ingestion of food and drinking water.
Exposures may be greater near heavily industrialized areas or at Superfund sites where this solvent is present. It is used as a solvent and paint thinner. Production of 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene occurs during petroleum refining as a major component of the C9 aromatic hydrocarbon fraction.
Another primary use is as a gasoline additive. Occupational exposure may also occur from industrial uses. In , EPA banned its use as a soil and grain fumigant.
Currently, there are no registered allowable pesticide or fumigant uses for 1,2-dibromoethane in New York. The hotter the temperature inside the combustion chamber of the engine, the more efficiently the fuel is burned. EPA concluded that aircraft using leaded fuel are currently an ambient source of 1,2-dibromoethane.
At large airports the proportion of flights using avgas is small. Possible sources of 1,2-dibromoethane emissions to the ambient air are production and processing facilities. Exposure could occur from inhalation of ambient air near industries that use 1,2-dibromoethane or through the ingestion of contaminated drinking water.
Exposures also can occur from aircraft using avgas or racing cars using leaded gasoline. The greatest use of 1,2-dichlorobenzene is as a chemical intermediate for making agricultural chemicals, primarily herbicides. Other present and past uses include: solvent for waxes, gums, resins, wood preservatives, paints; insecticide for termites and borers; in making dyes; as a coolant, deodorizer, and degreaser. Occupational exposure to 1,2-dichlorobenzene may be through inhalation and dermal contact with this compound at workplaces where 1,2-dichlorobenzene is produced or used.
In the U. Smaller amounts of 1,2-dichloroethane are used in the synthesis of 1,1-dichloroethene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, trichloroethene, tetrachloroethene, aziridines, and ethylene diamines and in chlorinated solvents.
There are no known natural sources of 1,2-dichloroethane. Releases of this compound to the environment may result from the manufacture, use, storage, distribution, and disposal of 1,2-dichloroethane. Previously used as an agricultural soil fumigant.
Occupational exposure to 1,2-dichloropropane may occur during its production, during its use in chemical reactions or as an industrial solvent, or from evaporation from wastewater that contains the chemical. General population exposures may occur if exposed to contaminated water sources.
Used as a paint thinner, solvent, and motor fuel component. It is also used as an intermediate in the synthesis of dyes and antioxidants. Workers and the general population that operate gasoline-pumping stations and off-set printers may be exposed 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene. It is also used in copolymers including acrylics. Sources of 1,3-butadiene released into the air include motor vehicle exhaust, manufacturing and processing facilities, forest fires or other combustion, and cigarette smoke.
Higher levels of 1,3-butadiene may be found in highly industrialized cities or near oil refineries, chemical manufacturing plants, and plastic and rubber factories. Occupational exposure to 1,3-butadiene may occur in the rubber, plastics, and resins industries.
Whereas, 1,4-dichlorobenzene is used as a deodorant. Occupational exposures may occur where this chemical is used in production. Minor uses of 1,4 dichlorobenzene include its use in the control of certain tree-boring insects and ants, and in the control of blue mold in tobacco seed beds. People are exposed to 1,4-dichlorobenzene mainly by breathing vapors from 1,4-dichlorobenzene products used in the home, such as mothballs and toilet-deodorizer blocks.
Reported air levels of 1,4 dichlorobenzene in some homes and public restrooms have ranged from 0. These samples contained about 0. People who work or live in buildings where air fresheners, toilet block deodorants, or moth balls containing 1,4-dichlorobenzene are used also are expected to have a higher exposure to this compound, which could occur from skin contact as well as by breathing.
Individuals can be occupationally exposed to 1,4-dichlorobenzene in workplace air at much higher levels than the general public is exposed.
Levels measured in the air of factories that make or process 1,4 dichlorobenzene products have ranged from 5. In addition, people who live or work near industrial facilities or hazardous waste sites that have high levels of 1,4-dichlorobenzene may have greater exposure to these compounds due to emissions from the facilities and waste sites.
The primary use of a- chlorotoluene is in the manufacture of benzyl butyl phthalate and other flexible poly vinyl chloride uses such as food packaging.
Sources of a- chlorotoluene emissions into the air include emissions or venting with other gases in industrial settings. Emissions of a- chlorotoluene from floor tile plasticized by butyl benzyl phthalate have been reported.
Individuals may be exposed to a- chlorotoluene through breathing contaminated air or from exposure to water or soil that has been contaminated with a- chlorotoluene.
Individuals may be exposed to a- chlorotoluene if exposed to gasoline where this chemical has been used. Current releases are expected to be much lower since more facilities are using natural gas which is cheaper than coal. Benzene is used as a constituent in motor fuels; as a solvent for fats, waxes, resins, oils, inks, paints, plastics, and rubber; in the extraction of oils from seeds and nuts; and in photogravure printing.
It is also used as a chemical intermediate. Benzene is also used in the manufacture of detergents, explosives, pharmaceuticals, and dyestuffs. Everyone is exposed to a small amount of benzene every day, primarily through breathing air that contains benzene. The major sources of benzene exposure are tobacco smoke, automobile service stations, exhaust from motor vehicles, and industrial emissions.
Air releases from products that contain benzene, such as glues, paints, furniture wax, and detergents, can also be a source of exposure. Individuals employed in industries that manufacture or use benzene may be exposed to the highest levels of benzene.
These industries include benzene production petrochemicals, petroleum refining, and coke and coal chemical manufacturing , rubber tire manufacturing, and storage or transport of benzene and petroleum products containing benzene.
Other workers who may be exposed to benzene include workers in the steel industry, printers, rubber workers, shoe makers, laboratory technicians, firefighters, and gas station employees. Individuals may also be exposed to benzene by consuming contaminated water. Non-anthropogenic sources of benzene include volcanoes and forest fires. The principal use of bromodichloromethane is as a chemical intermediate for organic synthesis and as a laboratory reagent.
Bromodichloromethane's production and use as a chemical intermediate and solvent may result in its release to the environment through various waste streams. The general population is exposed to bromodichloromethane through consumption of contaminated drinking water, beverages, and food products. The contamination is a result of inadvertent formation during chlorination treatment of the drinking water and subsequent use of chlorinated tap water to produce food products.
Exposure can also occur through inhalation of background levels in ambient air and through dermal exposure in chlorinated swimming pool water. The predominant anthropogenic source of bromodichloromethane release to the environment is its inadvertent formation during chlorination treatment processes of water.
The primary use of methyl bromide is as a fumigant in soil to control fungi, nematodes, and weeds; in space fumigation of food commodities e. Workers who fumigate homes and fields may be exposed to high levels of methyl bromide if proper safety precautions are not followed.
Some methyl bromide is formed naturally by algae or kelp in the ocean. Methyl bromide is released from the burning of bituminous and sub-bituminous coal.
Carbon disulfide is used predominantly in the manufacture of rayon, cellophane, and carbon tetrachloride. Carbon disulfide is also used to produce rubber chemicals and pesticides. Carbon disulfide was one of the seven sulfur-gas released from problem drywall installed in U. Workers in plants that use carbon disulfide in their manufacturing processes have a high degree of exposure potential.
Releases of carbon disulfide from industrial processes are almost exclusively to the air; individuals in proximity to these sites may be exposed. Carbon disulfide has been detected in some samples of drinking water. Low amounts of carbon disulfide may be emitted naturally from volcanoes and marshes. The major use of carbon tetrachloride has historically been for the production of chlorofluorocarbons, such as dichlorodifluoromethane F and trichlorofluoromethane F , which are used primarily as refrigerants.
Historically, it was widely used as a cleaning fluid in the home and as a degreaser in industry. Carbon tetrachloride was phased out in January by the Montreal Protocol. It is only available for those uses for which no effective substitute has been found.
The atmospheric half-life for carbon tetrachloride is 50 years or more and therefore, it will remain a ubiquitously distributed airborne contaminant for many years to come. The general public is exposed to a small amount carbon tetrachloride everyday because of global circulating concentrations because this chemical has a long atmospheric half-life. Individuals may be exposed to carbon tetrachloride in the air from accidental releases from production and uses, and from its disposal in landfills where it may evaporate into the air or leach into groundwater.
Carbon tetrachloride is also a common contaminant of indoor air; the sources of exposure appear to be building materials or products, such as cleaning agents, used in the home. Workers directly involved in the manufacture or use of carbon tetrachloride are most likely to have significant exposures to carbon tetrachloride. Individuals may also be exposed to carbon tetrachloride by drinking contaminated water.
Synthetic Rubber Manufacturing Process
A novel cement-based composition comprising a cement powder, a polymeric latex composition, and a water-soluble polysaccharide compound is disclosed. This composition is useful in adhering ceramic and vitreous tiles to plywood substrates. The composition can also be formulated to be an underlayment for preparing a substrate for flooring including carpet, tiles, wood flooring, etc. The present invention relates to a cement-based adhesive composition for use in forming relatively thin adhesive layers in composite constructions. More particularly, the invention relates to a composition comprising a cement component, a polymeric latex composition, and a water soluble polysaccharide compound.
Skip to main content Skip to table of contents. Advertisement Hide. Rubber Technology. Front Matter Pages i-ix. Introduction to Polymer Science.
Uses, Sources and Potential Exposure to Toxic Air Pollutants
When a tree is injured, the fluid that oozes out of the wound is referred to as an exudate. The injury may be deliberate "tapping" or it may be natural or accidental e. In most cases exudates are harvested from the stem or branches of the tree or shrub, but occasionally they are harvested from the roots. Exudation varies greatly amongst genera, and between species within a genus, and the function of the exudate in the plant is not fully understood. One probable role of resinous exudates is to serve as a defence mechanism: when the tree is wounded or attacked by insects or pathogens, it responds by "bleeding" and resin flows to the wound, sealing it off from further attack. Some terpenoids present in the resin may be fungitoxic so that in addition to physical protection there is some chemical protection in terms of inhibiting the spread of fungi. Depending on their physical and chemical characteristics, exudates are conveniently classified as resins, oleoresins, balsams, latexes or gums. Exudates are a fairly widely used and traded category of non-wood forest products. Resins are solid or semi-solid amorphous materials, usually comprising a complex mixture of organic compounds called terpenes.
In polymer chemistry and materials science , resin is a solid or highly viscous substance of plant or synthetic origin that is typically convertible into polymers. This article focuses on naturally occurring resins. Plants secrete resins for their protective benefits in response to injury. The resin protects the plant from insects and pathogens. Most plant resins are composed of terpenes.
Compare preproduction test and qualification test. ASTM D ; in building construction, failure of the bond between the sealant, adhesive, or coating and the substrate surface. ASTM C a ; in pressure sensitive tapes, when performing a loop tack test, after the initial touch of the coated stock to the stainless steel plate, all of the adhesive remains on the coated stock.
Establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing alkalies and chlorine. Establishments primarily engaged in mining natural alkalies are classified in Mining, Industry Alkalies, not produced at mines Caustic potash Caustic soda Chlorine compressed or liquefied Potassium carbonate Potassium hydroxide Sal soda washing soda Soda ash not produced at mines Sodium bicarbonate not produced at mines Sodium carbonate soda ash not produced at mines Sodium hydroxide caustic soda Washing soda sal soda. Establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing industrial gases including organic for sale in compressed, liquid, and solid forms.
Synthetic Rubber Manufacturing Process. How Does Rubber Extrusion Work? The rubber extrusion process begins with a rubber compound being fed into an extruder. KNB is a synthetic rubber product manufactured by emulsion-polymerizing acrylonitrile and butadiene in low temperature and has great oil and chemical resistance. As the styrene content is increased over 45 weight percent, the product becomes increasingly more plastic. The RMA states that about five gallons of oil are used as the feedstock, while another two gallons are used in the tire manufacturing process itself.
Latex modified cement-based thin set adhesive
There is very little production of 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane in the U. Any remaining production would likely be for on-site uses as a chemical intermediate, as a trace constituent with other chemicals, or as part of a waste stream in releases to the environment. In the past, 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane was used in large amounts to produce trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, and 1,2,-dichloroethylene. It was also used as a solvent, in cleaning and degreasing metals, in paint removers, varnishes and lacquers, in photographic films, as an extractant for oils and fats, and in pesticides. Limited occupational exposure to 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane may occur.
Specialty and Industrial Coatings. Inks and Printing. Intermediates and Solvents.
Raw Materials in Production of Stickers. The origins of the common sticker can be traced back to ancient Egyptians. Competition in busy markets forced people to develop new ways to attract customers to their stall.
Она ждет уже целый час. Очевидно, Анонимная рассылка Америки не слишком торопится пересылать почту Северной Дакоты. Сьюзан тяжело вздохнула. Несмотря на все попытки забыть утренний разговор с Дэвидом, он никак не выходил у нее из головы.
Ему хотелось домой. Он посмотрел на дверь с номером 301.
Его любимым развлечением было подключаться к ее компьютеру, якобы для того, чтобы проверить совместимость оборудования. Сьюзан это выводило из себя, однако она была слишком самолюбива, чтобы пожаловаться на него Стратмору. Проще было его игнорировать. Хейл подошел к буфету, с грохотом открыл решетчатую дверцу, достал из холодильника пластиковую упаковку тофу, соевого творога, и сунул в рот несколько кусочков белой студенистой массы.
Затем облокотился о плиту, поправил широкие серые брюки и крахмальную рубашку.
Явный звук шагов на верхней площадке. Хейл в ужасе тотчас понял свою ошибку. Стратмор находится на верхней площадке, у меня за спиной.
Отчаянным движением он развернул Сьюзан так, чтобы она оказалась выше его, и начал спускаться. Достигнув нижней ступеньки, он вгляделся в лестничную площадку наверху и крикнул: - Назад, коммандер.
Назад, или я сломаю… Рукоятка револьвера, разрезая воздух, с силой опустилась ему на затылок.
Самое разрушительное последствие - полное уничтожение всего банка данных, - продолжал Джабба, - но этот червь посложнее. Он стирает только те файлы, которые отвечают определенным параметрам. - Вы хотите сказать, что он не нападет на весь банк данных? - с надеждой спросил Бринкерхофф. - Это ведь хорошо, правда.