Manufactory dry drinks - concentrates and waste products
The beverage industry consists of two major categories and eight sub-groups. The non-alcoholic category is comprised of soft drink syrup manufacture; soft drink and water bottling and canning; fruit juices bottling, canning and boxing; the coffee industry and the tea industry. Alcoholic beverage categories include distilled spirits, wine and brewing. Although many of these beverages, including beer, wine and tea, have been around for thousands of years, the industry has developed only over the past few centuries. The beverage products industry, viewed as an aggregate group, is highly fragmented. This is evident by the number of manufacturers, methods of packaging, production processes and final products.VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: How to make Alcohol at Home (Ethanol)
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EP0925727A2 - An emulsion concentrate for soft drinks - Google Patents
NCBI Bookshelf. Fermentation is biotechnology in which desirable microorganisms are used in the production of value-added products of commercial importance. Fermentation occurs in nature in any sugar-containing mash from fruit, berries, honey, or sap tapped from palms.
If left exposed in a warm atmosphere, airborne yeasts act on the sugar to convert it into alcohol and carbon dioxide. The making of wines and beers uses this biotechnology under controlled conditions. Alcoholic beverages have been produced for centuries in various societies. They are often central to the most valued personal and social ceremonies of both modern and less literate societies.
In such traditional ceremonies as childnaming, marriage feasts, and funerals, alcoholic beverages are often present. In Africa, maize, millet, bananas, honey, palm and bamboo saps, and many fruits are used to ferment nutrient beers and wines.
The best known being kaffir beer and palm wines. Industrial fermentation processes are conducted with selected microorganisms under specified conditions with carefully adjusted nutrient concentrations.
The products of fermentation are many: alcohol, glycerol, and carbon dioxide are obtained from yeast fermentation of various sugars. Butyl alcohol, acetone, lactic acid, monosodium glutamate, and acetic acid are products of bacteria action; citric acid, gluconic acid, antibiotics, vitamin B 12 , and riboflavin are some of the products obtained from mold fermentation.
Yeasts, the main microorganisms involved in alcoholic fermentation, are found throughout the world. More than 8, strains of this vegetative microorganism have been classified. About 9 to 10 pure strains, with their subclassifications, are used for the fermentation of grain mashes. These belong to the type Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Each strain has its own characteristics and imparts its special properties to a distillate when used in fermentation. A limited number of yeasts in the classification Saccharomyces ellipsoides are used in the fermentation of wines from which brandy is distilled.
The strains used in the fermentation of grain mashes are also used in the fermentation of rum from sugarcane extracts and in beer production. Since yeasts function best in slightly acid medium, the mash, juice, sap, or extract prepared for fermentation must be checked for adequate acidity.
If acidity is insufficient, acid or acid-bearing material are added. The alcohol content of the fermented must is about 7 to 9 percent.
For most distilled liquors, the raw material used is a natural sugar as found in honey, ripe fruit, sugarcane juice, palm sap, beet root, milk, or a substance of amylaceous starchy nature that can be easily converted into simple sugars using enzymes present in cereals or through the addition of suitable malted cereal.
Maize or corn is the most important grain used as fermentable starchy cereal. Starchy roots and tubers are also used. Industrial production of alcohol from cassava in Brazil has been described by De Menezee 1. The alcohol produced is concentrated in a second distillation column to Malt is important in distilled liquor. In addition to converting starches from other carbohydrates to sugars, malt contains soluble proteins that contribute flavor to the distillate obtained from the fermentation of grain malt mixtures.
Grown throughout the tropics and semitropics, sugarcane and its products, including cane juices, molasses, and sugar are used to make rum and an alcohol derived from rum. Pressed juice from sugarcane can be used as the base raw material for fermentation, or the juice can be concentrated for sugar production with the molasses residue from sugar crystallization used as a base for alcohol fermentation.
Molasses contains about 35 percent sucrose and 15 percent reducing sugars. This gives molasses its principal value as an industrial raw material for fermentation to produce rum. Two or 3 liters of molasses produces 1 liter of rum. Acetone and butanol also are produced from molasses by fermentation with Clostridiurn bacteria. Food yeast Torulopsis utilis , is prepared from molasses, as are baker's and brewer's yeasts 2. The coconut palm finds many uses on the tropical islands of the Pacific.
Toddy is produced by tapping the unopened flower spathe of the coconut palm. The spathe is bruised slightly by gentle tapping with a small mallet and is tied tightly with fiber to prevent it from opening.
It is bent over gradually to allow the toddy to flow into a receptacle. About 5 centimeters is cut from the tip of the spathe after about 3 weeks. Thereafter, a thin slice is shaved off once or twice a day and the exuding sap is collected.
Palms are tapped for 8 months of the year and rested for 4 months. The average daily yield per palm is about 2 liters. The yield per spathe varies from 15 to 80 liters, and an average palm can yield liters during 8 months of tapping.
The fresh sweet toddy contains 15 to 20 percent total solids, of which 12 to Toddy ferments rapidly due to naturally occurring yeasts. Fermented toddy contains about 6 percent alcohol. After 24 hours the toddy contains 4 to 5 percent acetic acid and is unpalatable as a beverage. It can be used for the production of vinegar.
Fermented toddy can be distilled to produce arrack. Freshly fermented toddy is used instead of yeast in bread making. Constant tapping of coconut palms for toddy eliminates the nut crop. In in wine distilleries in Sri Lanka, over 49 million liters of toddy was fermented to give 4.
By tapping the male inflorescence of the oil palm, a sweet sap is obtained. The leaf subtending the immature male inflorescence is removed to provide access, the inflorescence is excised, and thin slices are cut once or twice daily. The exuding sap is funneled into a calabash or a bottle. The fresh sap contains 15 percent sugar. Tapping is done daily for 2 to 3 months, yielding about 3.
The sap ferments by the action of bacteria and natural yeast to produce a beverage with a milky flocculent appearance and a slight sulfurous odor known as palm wine. Palm wine is produced and marketed in considerable quantities in Nigeria. The sap may be boiled to produce dark-colored sticky sugar or jaggery, which does not keep well. About 9 liters of juice produces 1 kilogram of jaggery. The fermented sap also yields yeasts and vinegar. A mean annual yield of 4, liters of sap per hectare of palms has been recorded in eastern Nigeria.
This was estimated to have a value more than double that of oil and kernels from similar palms. Tapping, however, reduces the fruit yield. Sap can also be obtained by tapping the crown of the tree laterally or by felling the palm and drilling a hole through the growing point. Both these methods are very wasteful since they kill the plant.
The Palmyra palm yields about 2 liters of palm sap per day. Large palms with several tapped inflorescences give as much as 20 liters per day. A single palm of this type is estimated to produce 12, liters of sap during its tapping life.
Grapes are the most common fruit used as raw material for alcoholic fermentation. They are used in distilled liquor to make brandy. Historically, wine is the product of fermentation of grape species Vitis vinifera. The high sugar content of most V. Their natural sugar content provides the necessary material for fermentation. It is sufficient to produce a wine with an alcohol content of 10 percent or higher. Wines containing less alcohol are unstable because of their sensitivity to bacterial spoilage.
The grape's moderate acidity when ripe is also favorable to wine making. The fruit has an acidity of less than 1 percent, calculated as tartaric acid, the main acid in grapes, with a pH of 3. The flavor of grapes varies from neutral to strongly aromatic, and the pigment pattern of the skin varies from light greenish-yellow to russet, pink, red, reddish violet, or blue-black.
Grapes also contain tannins needed to give bite and taste in the flavor of wines and to protect them from bacteria and possible ill effects if overexposed to the air. Other fruits can be used to produce wine.
When fruits other than grapes are used, the name of the fruit is included, as in papaya or pineapple wine. Apples and citrus fruits with sufficient fermentable sugars are crushed, and the fermentable juices are either pressed out for fermentation or the entire mass is fermented. Tropical fruits such as guava, mangoes, pineapple, pawpaw, ripe banana, ripe plantain, tangerine, and cashew fruit also contain fermentable sugars with levels varying from 10 to 20 percent.
Overripe plantain pulp was reported to contain 16 to 17 percent fermentable sugar, with the skin containing as much as 30 percent 3. The tropical climate prevailing in Africa is ideal for the growth and multiplication of microorganisms. The environment is abundant in biomass and in raw materials, which are high in starches and sugars and can be used for fermentation.
The available literature is sufficient in information on conditions and control measures required for optimum microbial activity in the various microbial processes. Convincing research results are also available to support utilization of microorganisms in the production of high-quality products of commercial importance. What is lacking, however, is organization of the available information to enable selection of appropriate microbial processes that can be put together to form an integrated system to harness desirable microorganisms as a labor force for industrial exploitation.
Below an account is given of an attempt to organize four microbial processes into a production system to produce fruits, wines, and alcohol in an experimental project.
An experimental project was established aimed at providing adequate conditions and control measures in four separate biological subsettings to produce quality products through the action of microorganisms. An attempt was then made to synchronize the activities of the subsettings into an integrated system for the production of fruits, wines, and alcohol with jam production as an integral part of the production system.
The four biotechnological subsettings used were: a compost pile, stimulated microbiological activity in the soil for release of nutrients, yeast activity in extracted fruit juices for the production of wines, and yeast activity in juice extracted from pineapple by-products for the production of alcohol.
In a two-compartment wooden structure measuring 2 x 1 x 1 meters was constructed to hold two piles of composting material.
Fruit Juice Processing Plant Cost In India Pdf
Fruits segment is dominating the global juice concentrates market owing to increasing consumption of its concentrates in various applications over its compatriots and flexible manufacturing process over others. Fruit is processed to remove leaves, stems, etc. As a juice manufacturer and a juice supplier, a similar process is followed out by Gat Foods in their manufacturing process of juice concentrates. Compared to canning where food products are subjected to high temperature processing, the fast heat treatment provided by aseptic processing enables heat-sensitive characteristics of the food to be better retained. Customized design of aseptic filler machine according to requirement can be designed.
NIIR Board. The dairy industry plays an important role in our daily life. It is difficult to realize how fast changes are taking place in the dairy industry. Milk is an important human food, it is palatable, easy to digest and highly nutritive.
Whey Protein Concentrate as a Substitute for Non-Fat Dry Milk in Yogurt
People eat apples as a normal part of the diet or drink apple juice. Cupertino, CA. So, you want to know how to make apple pie moonshine, eh? You've come to the right place. Using fruit juice, making jelly is pretty easy! Just make sure you read my note about sweetener and sugar. Finally, the apple juice is normally distributed in the form of concentrate slurry which is obtained by evaporating most of the juice water, i.
Milk products prepared by lactic acid fermentation e. Kefir are called fermented or cultured milks. The term fermented will be used in this chapter. The generic name of fermented milk is derived from the fact that the milk for the product is inoculated with a starter culture which converts part of the lactose to lactic acid.
Until recently, cheese processors and other dairies would discard whey by transporting it off-site to be dried by other companies, to drain into effluent treatment plants or city municipalities or to be used as cattle feed. But, when SPX Flow Technology introduced whey processing technology, which turns whey, lactose and permeate powders from a waste stream into a new source of profit, it opened new avenues for various applications and markets. The pediatric, geriatric, nutrition, ready-to-eat, baking, confectionery, health and pharmaceutical industries benefit from harvesting ingredients through this extraction process. Dairies identify the type of cheese production—sweet coagulation of cheese curd or acid coagulation.
FERMENTED MILK PRODUCTS
Waste management is a global problem that continues to increase with rapid industrialization, population growth, and economic development. The fast industrialization, urbanization, modern technology, and rapidly growing population in India have posed a serious challenge to the waste management. In India, per capita generation rate of municipal solid waste ranges from 0.
Whey, the liquid residue of cheese, casein and yoghurt production, is one of the biggest reservoirs of food protein available today. World whey output at approximately million tonnes in contains some 1. The latest research shows that whey protein is arguably the most nutritionally valuable protein available; little wonder that nutritional markets such as sports, clinical and infant nutrition are driving an unprecedented investment level in dairy production. Whey as a by-product from the manufacture of hard, semi-hard or soft cheese and rennet casein is known as sweet whey and has a pH of 5. Manufacture of mineral-acid precipitated casein yields acid whey with a pH of 4. Table
This contribution would have been much greater had the animal by-products been also efficiently utilized. Efficient utilization of by-products has direct impact on the economy and environmental pollution of the country. Non-utilization or under utilization of by-products not only lead to loss of potential revenues but also lead to the added and increasing cost of disposal of these products. Non-utilization of animal by-products in a proper way may create major aesthetic and catastrophic health problems. Besides pollution and hazard aspects, in many cases meat, poultry and fish processing wastes have a potential for recycling raw materials or for conversion into useful products of higher value.
Frozen juice concentrates are important ingredients in the manufacture of all types of beverages as well as many foods. Though the retail frozen juice concentrate business has shrunk considerably in the past two decades, mainly due to consumer desire for convenience, a concept much better served by ready-to-drink options, frozen juice concentrates are important ingredients in the manufacture of all types of beverages as well as many foods. This includes dairy products such as ice cream and yogurt, pies and pastries, dressings and sauces, jams and jellies, and various candies. With super- and exotic-fruits grown in tropical regions on the other side of the world from where the consumer base is located, it makes economic sense to ship concentrates and reconstitute them with local, inexpensive water at a bottling plant.
Whey processing technology turns waste into profit
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NCBI Bookshelf. Fermentation is biotechnology in which desirable microorganisms are used in the production of value-added products of commercial importance. Fermentation occurs in nature in any sugar-containing mash from fruit, berries, honey, or sap tapped from palms. If left exposed in a warm atmosphere, airborne yeasts act on the sugar to convert it into alcohol and carbon dioxide.
Skip to search form Skip to main content. Chemistry Published DOI: Whey was once considered a waste product but it is converted to food ingredients through processing steps that include membrane filtration, heat or enzyme modification, and fractionation. These processes have made it possible to improve sweet whey utilization.
Baking is a food cooking method that uses prolonged dry heat by convection, rather than by thermal radiation. Heat is gradually transferred "from the surface of cakes, cookies and breads to their centre. As heat travels through it transforms batters and dough into baked goods with a firm dry crust and a softer centre". Bakery products have become essential food items of the vast majority of population. The present day consumer looks for new bakery products, better appeal, taste and convenience from bakery foods.
Juices Concentrate Orange, Tomato, Apple and other juices, substantially reducing dewatering costs versus evaporation. Beer Produce "light Beer", "low alcohol" beer, recover brewing sludge. Wine Replace Fining and Traditional filtration techniques with U. Concentrate Grape Juice to improve taste, remove colour and off-taste materials, reduce cold stabilization time.