Production commercial steel mesh, except reinforcing
To explain the difference in grounding and bonding to me, a sage mogul once used the analogy of a marriage. Then after a little while, the husband gets grounded! Perhaps nowhere in the Code is this mystery more prevalent than at I would nominate this NEC section as one of the most misunderstood and misinterpreted sections in the entire Code. Historically, this section is one of those that go through some of the most dramatic revisions from Code cycle to Code cycle.VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: What is fiber reinforced concrete?
Dear readers! Our articles talk about typical ways to resolve Production commercial steel mesh, except reinforcing, but each case is unique.
If you want to know, how to solve your particular problem - contact the online consultant form on the right or call the numbers on the website. It is fast and free!
To explain the difference in grounding and bonding to me, a sage mogul once used the analogy of a marriage. Then after a little while, the husband gets grounded!
Perhaps nowhere in the Code is this mystery more prevalent than at I would nominate this NEC section as one of the most misunderstood and misinterpreted sections in the entire Code. Historically, this section is one of those that go through some of the most dramatic revisions from Code cycle to Code cycle. Bonding requirements are an important and unique protective method employed to increase the safety of the users of bodies of water such as pools, spas, and hot tubs.
Bonding connects the conductive elements of the pool structure, nearby metallic objects, and electrical equipment enclosures together. Bonding is required to eliminate voltage gradients rises in voltage potential in the pool area.
When metallic parts are bonded together, they effectively eliminate differences of voltage potential that may exist between the individual conductive parts and thus reduce the shock hazard. If these metallic conductive parts are not bonded together, this leaves these conductive parts having the potential of being at different voltage potentials.
If a conductive path is provided between two conductive parts at different voltage potentials, this current is going to naturally equal itself out between these conductive parts. If these conductive parts are mechanically, electrically, and intentionally bonded married together, there is typically no shock hazard present as these conductive parts are always at the same voltage potential.
This bonding is referred to as equipotential bonding [ NEC Now is a good time to explore the different purposes served by bonding and grounding and to develop a clear understanding of the two terms. Bonding is used to equalize voltage potential differences to reduce shock hazards between different parts of the pool by connecting potentially conductive parts together.
Grounding involves providing a low-impedance, ground-fault return path from the equipment required to be grounded back to the source of the electrical system, typically through the equipment grounding conductor routed with the branch-circuit conductors. This path facilitates the operation of the fuse or circuit breaker to allow it to remove the faulted condition.
Since several types of electrical equipment commonly used with swimming pools, hot tubs or spas that are bonded together must also be grounded, an interconnection between the grounded neutral conductor and bonding grid exists. This interconnection, usually at the electrical service equipment, is often remote and is not intended to play a part in equipotential bonding see figure 1. Figure 1. Bonding and grounding of pool associated components and equipment.
People are in direct contact with the water and encounter grounded objects such as metal ladders. Electrical equipment is used to circulate and heat the water and for other related functions such as illumination. The Code requirements, if carefully followed, will reduce the electric shock hazards to an acceptable level. One of these measures is the bonding together of conductive portions of the pool and metal parts of electrical equipment associated with the pool.
The goal is to provide a means of equalizing the voltage potential of all equipment and parts. If done properly, there will be no current flow between these parts that would be harmful to personnel.
The required bonding is accomplished by connecting all the parts together by an adequately sized and properly connected series of copper bonding conductor s or other recognized bonding methods. The Code describes the basic bonding requirements and provides a list of items required to be bonded together. These bonding requirements can be found at NEC Included are the following metal parts that must be bonded together:.
For pool water heaters rated at more than 50 amperes and having specific instructions regarding bonding and grounding: only those parts designated to be bonded are required to be bonded; and only those parts designated to be grounded are required to be grounded. The equipment grounding conductor run with the supply branch circuit conductors to the motor is the permitted means used to ground the internal nonaccessible metal parts of these double-insulated motors.
Where a double-insulated water pump is installed, a bonding connection to the equipotential bonding grid is not permitted. However, the Code does require the installation of an 8 AWG solid copper bonding conductor that is of sufficient length to make a bonding connection to a future replacement motor.
This requirement is in the event that the replacement motor is not a double-insulated type motor. The bonding conductor is to be extended from the equipotential bonding grid to an accessible location near the motor. Where there is no connection between the bonding grid and the equipment grounding conductor for the premises, this bonding conductor is required to be connected to the equipment-grounding conductor of the pump motor circuit.
This connection could be made at the motor termination compartment or in a suitable junction box or other enclosure [see NEC All the metallic structural components and other metal fittings, wiring methods and equipment must be connected together to form an equipotential bonding grid. The equipotential bonding grid is divided into two 2 distinctive parts, the conductive pool shell belly steel and the perimeter surfaces deck steel see photo 2. For the conductive pool shell, poured concrete, pneumatically applied or sprayed concrete, and concrete block including painted or plastered coatings are all considered conductive materials due to water permeability and porosity.
Vinyl liners and fiberglass composite shells are not included in these bonding requirements and are considered nonconductive materials. For the perimeter surfaces, the equipotential bonding grid is to extend under paved walking surfaces for 1 m 3 ft horizontally beyond the inside walls of the pool unless separated from the pool by a permanent wall or building 1. The deck or perimeter surface also includes unpaved surfaces as well as poured concrete and other types of paving and is required to be attached to the pool reinforcing steel or copper conductor grid of the conductive pool shell at a minimum of four 4 points uniformly spaced around the perimeter of the pool.
For nonconductive pool shells, bonding at four points is not a requirement. The components and make-up of the conductive pool shell and the perimeter surfaces will be discussed in greater detail later in this article.
The bonding connection between the various components of the equipotential bonding grid can be made with a series of solid copper conductor s or with rigid metal conduit of brass or other identified corrosion-resistant metal.
If a conductor is used, it may be insulated, covered, or bare, but cannot be smaller than 8 AWG. This bonding conductor is not required to be extended or attached to remote panelboards, service equipment, or any grounding electrodes.
This bonding conductor is, again, simply for bonding of metal components together, it is not intended for establishing a connection to earth or a ground-fault return path. The connection s must be made in accordance with NEC Where pressure-type connectors are used, be certain they are sized to accommodate the 8 AWG copper bonding conductor and the steel reinforcing bar or whatever is being bonded.
Some clamps or connectors are suitable for use with pipe only or with reinforcing rods only. This requirement will also ensure a secure connection on what are often widely different sizes of reinforcing bar or rod and the 8 AWG bonding conductor. If the connection will be covered with concrete or earth, use a wire pressure connector that is identified as being suitable for direct earth burial or concrete encasement, whichever applies.
The process of exothermic welding is an excellent way to bond the required bonding conductor s to reinforcing rods or bars. If the exothermic welding process is used, it is critical to use the proper form or mold. A proper form will be sized for both the reinforcing rod and the bonding conductor to be used. Safe work practices and proper personnel protective equipment are required to avoid being seriously burned. The equipotential bonding grid is comprised of two 2 different and distinct parts.
The first of these two that we will discuss is the conductive pool shell. This conductive pool shell is sometimes referred to as the belly steel. The conductive pool shell is to be comprised of the following elements:. Unencapsulated structural reinforcing steel of a conductive pool, where the reinforcing steel is bonded together by the usual steel tie wires or the equivalent.
The second element of the equipotential bonding grid is the perimeter surfaces or deck steel as it is sometimes referred to [see NEC The perimeter surfaces are comprised of the following elements.
Unencapsulated structural reinforcing steel, which for the perimeter surface can consist of such things as structural metal rebar or welded wire mesh. For the equipotential bonding grid, a clear distinction must be drawn, and attention needs to be directed to the difference between the copper conductor grid system as an alternative for the conductive pool shell and the copper conductor s alternate means for the perimeter surfaces.
This difference is the reason the Code separates these two distinctive and separate components of the equipotential bonding grid system. Each has separate requirements to achieve the same goal bonding for the same voltage potential. The same equipotential bonding can be achieved with a series of multiple short bonding jumpers from such things as ladders, diving boards, metal fences, etc.
The sole purpose of this bonding conductor is to eliminate any voltage gradients or differences in voltage potential in and around the pool area. How much more grounded can you get than this huge concrete-and-metal structure buried in the earth containing thousands of pounds of water pushing it into contact with the earth even more?
Out of these cookies, the cookies that are categorized as necessary are stored on your browser as they are essential for the working of basic functionalities of the website.
We also use third-party cookies that help us analyze and understand how you use this website. These cookies will be stored in your browser only with your consent.
You also have the option to opt-out of these cookies. But opting out of some of these cookies may have an effect on your browsing experience. Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly. This category only includes cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of the website. These cookies do not store any personal information. Any cookies that may not be particularly necessary for the website to function and is used specifically to collect user personal data via analytics, ads, other embedded contents are termed as non-necessary cookies.
It is mandatory to procure user consent prior to running these cookies on your website. Skip to content Reading Time: 12 minutes To explain the difference in grounding and bonding to me, a sage mogul once used the analogy of a marriage.
Equipotential Bonding Requirements Bonding requirements are an important and unique protective method employed to increase the safety of the users of bodies of water such as pools, spas, and hot tubs. Bonding and grounding of pool associated components and equipment Swimming pools, spas, and hot tubs present special shock hazards to people. The water is mixed with chemicals, which often increase conductivity. The usual steel tie wires are considered suitable for bonding the reinforcing steel together, and welding, brazing or special clamping is not required.
These tie wires must be made tight. Reinforcing steel effectively insulated by an encapsulating, nonconductive compound at the time of manufacture is not required to be bonded. If this is the case, the Code requires provisions to be made for an alternate means to eliminate voltage gradients. This alternate means will be discussed later in this article.
Taking the Mystery Out of Equipotential Bonding Requirements for Swimming Pools
Reviewed: October 24th Published: January 23rd Fibre-reinforced polymer FRP , also Fibre-reinforced plastic , is a composite material made of a polymer matrix reinforced with fibres. The fibres are usually glass, carbon, or aramid, although other fibres such as paper or wood or asbestos have been sometimes used. The polymer is usually an epoxy, vinylester or polyester thermosetting plastic, and phenol formaldehyde resins are still in use.
Brc Mesh Lapping. Where they overlap at T or L intersections the overlap should be the width of the trench mesh. A floor screed is usually a cementitious material made from a or Mesh rims show an intermediate composition between Fe-rich Brc and Srp in mesh cores: most probably they are made of an intimate sub.
Amir , F. Ahmad and P. Abstract The study presented the works on the effects of fibre reinforcement to the char characteristics of epoxy-based intumescent coating formulations. Reinforcing fibres such as glass fibre and carbon fibre that were manually cut to 10mm in length and chopped fibre strands 3mm length into formulations developed using commercial phosphate-based materials i. Five formulations; control without fibre , glass fibre reinforced, carbon fibre reinforced, hybrid fibre glass and carbon fibres reinforced and chopped fibre reinforced were prepared. Powder formulations were grinded using Rocklabs grinder and epoxy-mixed using Caframo mixer, where the maximum speed used was rpm and later hand-applied onto primer coated carbon steel substrates at room temperature. Natural drying time at room temperature for the coatings to fully dry was determined. Thermogravimetric analysis TGA was conducted on epoxy, hardener and the mixes. Char height, weight, crispness, cell structure were examined and compared. Scanning Electron Microscopy SEM characterizations were also conducted to inspect fibre distribution and condition in the coatings as well as in the char.
Concrete and reinforced concrete
Now it is capable of producing 2. Implementation of Quality Management System helping the company to have consistent quality. The plant will operate with high level automation to ensure productivity and consistent quality. A billet is a length of metal that has a round or square cross-section, Billets are created directly via continuous casting or extrusion or indirectly via hot rolling an ingot or bloom.
Reinforcing steel bars are used to help concrete withstand tension forces. Concrete is sufficiently strong to compression forces by nature, but tension forces can crack it. Deformed rebars on reinforcing steel have been a standard requirement since , but plain rebars are also used in situations where the reinforcing steel is expected to slide.
Buildings checked for failed steel mesh
Building regulators are checking how much Steel and Tube seismic reinforcing mesh has been used in commercial or multi-storey buildings, as wire rod maker Pacific Steel denies a conflict of interest over testing. Christchurch construction. The Ministry of Building, Innovation and Employment MBIE says it's not yet clear how many buildings the mesh has been used in, but the buildings will be assessed on a case-by-case basis once it knows. A sample of Steel and Tube's seismic mesh failed Commerce Commission strength tests this week, and the company has withdrawn it from the market.
Commercial Drafting and Detailing. Alan Jefferis , Kenneth D. You won't have to spend time pulling together pieces of various trade publications and supplementing them with your notes because it's all here, in one comprehensive resource. The fourth edition maintains the winning features of its previous editions; clear explanations and professional, practical examples that walk students through the architectural and structural drawings required in a complete set of commercial plans. It then builds on these successes by increasingly integrating design components into each chapter, replacing free-hand sketches with CAD skeleton drawings, and updating the information to reflect the International Building Code. The end result: you can spend less time preparing to teach and more time teaching, and your students get a valuable tool for staying current with industry trends and preparing to succeed in the classroom and beyond.
Rebar bending tolerance
EVG is a global mechanical engineering company specialising in the development and construction of machines and systems for processing wire and reinforcing steel. Our range of machinery includes welding equipment with varying levels of automation for the production of fine mesh, light mesh, industrial mesh, reinforcing steel mesh and gratings, as well as automatic welding machines for manufacturing girders, spacers and other reinforcing elements. We also make automatic stirrup benders, straighteners for processing reinforcing steel and wire cold-rolling lines that meet the highest technological and commercial demands. With the help of our regional branches and our in-house experts, we can respond to customer requirements and changing markets quickly and flexibly. We also have the know-how to provide our customers with consultancy services for constructing turnkey facilities and optimising logistics, material management and production control. Who we are EVG is a global mechanical engineering company specialising in the development and construction of machines and systems for processing wire and reinforcing steel.
United States. Office of Management and Budget. The edition of NAICS adds codes for new and important sectors of North American industry, including electronic commerce, electronic publishing, and more.
Brc Mesh Size. It mainly used for applications such as gratings for walkways and platforms, gratings for drainage covers, ventilation gratings, safety barriers, containers and so on. Also, another situation where wire mesh can offer benefits is when a poor or weak subgrade exists and may be expected to move…. Emails Suck.
Roofing Mesh. Find the perfect bike rack, cargo carrier, or trailer hitch for your vehicle. Stainless steel is the solution to the corrosion of roof safety mesh and will cope with the Australian environment for the life of the building. Silver tarp -Universally used and Trusted! Versatile BURmesh provides excellent tensile strength for reinforcing flashing seams, membrane laps, or other roof system details.
Rebar bending tolerance It is rotary table rebar bender with a cutter head. We have over 25 locations throughout the US which allows us to serve customers on a national level while maintaining a local presence in major industrial areas. Contractor's Own Inspection Program. Weight per Ft. Sheared length: plus or minus 1 inch.
Чем быстрее мы внесем изменение в программу, тем легче будет все остальное. У нас нет гарантий, что Дэвид найдет вторую копию. Если по какой-то случайности кольцо попадет не в те руки, я бы предпочел, чтобы мы уже внесли нужные изменения в алгоритм. Тогда, кто бы ни стал обладателем ключа, он скачает себе нашу версию алгоритма.