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Production industrial field crops

Production industrial field crops

These three areas require a variety of plant care tasks that require efficient nozzle technology. Efficient crop production today requires many different requirements to be met and compared with each other. National and international regulations must be considered as well as biological and ecological aspects. And at the end of the day the economical application of all pesticides must be assured. At Lechler our highest concern is to combine these requirements in the optimal nozzle for your purposes.

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Crop production

NCBI Bookshelf. The United States has abundant forests and croplands, favorable climates, accessible capital, and sophisticated technologies for a strong biobased industry. As agriculture productivity and silviculture productivity continue to increase, more biomass will be available to support a biobased industry.

Advances in biotechnology will keep a continuous supply of new crops flowing into the marketplace. The United States has substantial resources to invest in a carbon economy based on renewable resources.

Conversion of industrial production to the use of renewable resources will require abundant and inexpensive raw materials. The three potential sources of such materials are agricultural and forest crops and biological wastes e. The amount of each resource available for biobased production will depend on how much these crops are consumed by competing uses and how much land is dedicated to crops grown for industrial uses.

The land and other agricultural resources of the United States are sufficient to satisfy current domestic and export demands for food, feed, and fiber and still produce ample raw materials for biobased industrial products except for massive fuel production. Forests are a major source of raw materials for the production of wood products.

The amount of land supporting the nation's forests has remained relatively constant since USDA, Heightened public interest for forest preservation has led to government policies that support conversion of federal forest lands to special uses such as parks and wildlife areas that prohibit timber production. As these competing uses for national federal forests intensify, increases in timber harvesting on private forestlands will have to offset timber production declines on U.

Productivity from silviculture and timber harvests has increased on forest lands. Forest growth nationally has exceeded harvest since the s—a trend that was accelerating until very recently. In forest growth exceeded harvest by 22 percent, even though the harvest was 68 percent greater than in More recently to , the proportion of timber harvested from the total forested land has increased, primarily as a result of increased harvesting on industrial forestlands.

The U. Department of Agriculture USDA Forest Service is forecasting further increases in the nationwide volume of harvested timber from slightly over 16 billion cubic feet in to nearly 22 billion cubic feet in USDA, Production capacity of timbered forestland may be underused.

Softwood residues are generally in high demand as feedstocks, but hardwood timber residues have less demand and fewer competing uses. Under-utilized wood species include southern red oak, poplar, and various small-diameter hardwood species USDA, In the future forestlands may be planted to silviculture crops for use in bioenergy production.

Bioenergy crops may confer a number of benefits such as low maintenance requirements, high yields, and environmental advantages. Department of Energy DOE have field tested several short-rotation woody crop species harvested on a cycle of 3 to 10 years , including hybrid poplar, black locust, eucalyptus, silver maple, sweet gum, and sycamore.

Certain woody feedstocks have yields averaging 4. Even higher yields occur under certain conditions. Recent results show potential yields that consistently reach 8. Cropland acreage is the third major use of land in the United States. The most notable trend in cropland use is the movement of cropland from crop idling programs into crop use and out again ERS, a. Four principal crops—corn, wheat, soybean, and hay—accounted for nearly 80 percent of all crops harvested in Current use of commodity crops for industrial uses is low.

Coproduction of grain crops such as corn for both food and ethanol fuels will help reduce any future conflicts inherent in allocating renewable resources to two important human needs: food and fuel. The United States has long been the world's largest producer of coarse grains.

Recent data indicate that domestic grain production makes up approximately 67 percent of the world's grain supply USDA, a. Expected increases in production are due to increasing yields, except for corn, where more acreage also accounts for gains in some years.

Corn yields are expected to increase 1. Corn plantings are expected to remain at or above 80 million acres throughout the next decade USDA, a. Continuing gains in U. Based on these gains, analysts predicted that corn yields would exceed bushels per acre by Of the million metric tons of corn produced in the to marketing year, approximately 19 million metric tons 7 percent of the total corn grain production were allocated to industrial uses industrial starch, industrial alcohol, and fuel alcohol ERS, b.

To the extent that we understand the many factors contributing to crop yield, productivity increases in many cases will be enhanced by improvements in plant genetics, pest management, and soil quality. At the current rate of growth, another 19 million metric tons of corn could become available by the turn of the century. Perennial grasses and legumes are being evaluated as potential energy crops Hohenstein and Wright, These grasses include Bahia grass, Bermuda grass, eastern gama grass, reed canary grass, napiergrass, rye, Sudan grass, switchgrass, tall fescue, timothy, and weeping love grass.

Legumes that have been tested include alfalfa, bird's-foot trefoil, crown vetch, flatpea, clover, and Sericea lespedeza. In about million tons of hay more than half of which was alfalfa and alfalfa mixtures were harvested from 59 million acres of croplands in the United States USDA, Considerable preproduction research now focuses on the facile conversion of some of these materials into fermentable sugars. Thick-stemmed perennial grasses, such as energy cane and napiergrass, produce yields from 5.

These are current yields and likely would increase following selection. They may one day be grown and used on a large scale. The amount of cropland that will actually be used to supply biobased processors depends on a demand for the final product, and the inputs used to make that product must be competitively priced. Industrial processors bid for corn and forages based on processing costs and product prices in the petrochemical and specialty chemical industries.

Some industries that produce specialty starches and lactic acid plastics can bid grain and productive croplands away from food processors now. But some industrial products, such as grain-based ethanol, may not be able to compete with food producers even after considerable declines in grain or forage prices. Even with anticipated new technology, grain-based ethanol probably will not compete with petroleum fuels on a cost basis Kane et al. Similarly, access to major commodity plastics markets, like ethylene, may require very low-cost feedstocks Lipinsky, The amount of land devoted to crops for biobased industries will depend on economics, as tempered by agricultural policies.

Some resources that are not useful for food production may soon become more suitable for industrial products because processing technologies that use woody biomass are improving. Potential supplies from three sources—crop residues, wood wastes, and Conservation Reserve Program land—are discussed below. Other available biomass wastes e. These reserves may provide the best odds for competitive production of biobased industrial products.

The United States produces abundant wastes that are potential raw materials for biobased products. It is estimated that million metric tons per year of biological wastes are currently available refer to Table Much of this is crop residues, predominantly from corn—about million metric tons of corn residues are produced annually Gallagher and Johnson, To a lesser extent, paper mill, wood, and municipal solid waste also are important.

Approximately 5. Crop residues represent a major untapped source of carbon-rich raw materials available onsite at a low to negligible cost. However, expenses for collection, storage, and transport must be considered in using these bulky, low-valued residues. Sufficient biological wastes exist to supply the carbon for all million metric tons of organic carbon-based chemicals consumed annually in the United States as well as to provide part of the nation's fuel requirements Morris and Ahmed, Production of industrial products from agricultural wastes can reduce competition for agricultural resources.

This federal program was initiated in to help owners and operators of highly erodible crop-lands conserve and improve the soil and water resources on their farms and ranches through long-term land retirement. The CRP provides monetary incentives for farmers to retire environmentally sensitive lands from crop production for 10 to 15 years and to convert them to perennial vegetation.

Some CRP lands may be suitable for harvest of perennial grasses and energy crop production while preserving soil and wildlife habitat.

Judicious harvesting on a fraction of CRP lands might be consistent with wildlife and wetlands preservation. Field-scale studies are under way to quantify changes in soil and water quality and native biodiversity due to production of biomass energy crops on former agricultural lands Tolbert et al. Grass production on CRP lands could enhance biomass supply: at least 46 million tons of additional feed-stock would be available if one-half of CRP lands was available.

This figure assumes low yields of biomass approximately 2. Land costs in the CRP are a barrier to the biobased industry. Land values are high because the federal government must at least match the opportunity of foregone profits from continued production of annual crops such as corn or wheat.

CRP revision for energy crop harvest is a contentious issue. Furthermore, some have argued that reduced land rental costs for energy crops are a de facto subsidy Walsh et al. The potential of using CRP lands to grow biomass energy crops is a topic that merits further investigation.

The total biomass is sufficient to easily meet current demands for biobased organic chemicals and materials. High-value chemicals are not expected to require large acreages. Future demands for biobased commodity chemicals potentially can be met with biomass from waste resources and crops grown on some CRP lands.

While biobased materials such as lumber, cotton, and wool do have substantial markets, these products now compete successfully for land resources. Coproduction of human food and animal feed products such as protein with biobased products is expected to help prevent future conflicts between production of food and biobased fuels. Corn-based refineries, for example, yield protein for animal feed and oil, starch, fiber, and fuel alcohol products.

In the case of pulp and paper mills, pulp, paper, lignin byproducts, and ethanol can be produced while recycling waste paper in a single system. Current demands for liquid fuel are being met with current production of corn grain.

If policymakers chose to increase ethanol fuel production beyond the capacity for coproduction of food and liquid fuel, biobased crops grown for energy uses could compete for land with food production. Opportunities for coproduction of food, feed, liquid fuels, organic chemicals, and materials are described in more detail in Chapter 4.

The foundation of a biobased industry depends on an abundant supply of plant materials. Raw materials such as starches, cellulose, and oil can already be extracted from plants for the production of biomaterials, chemicals, and fuels. The committee envisions that many more plant substances e. While conventional breeding methods continue to play an important role in developing new crops and cultivars, genetic engineering of existing crops will greatly enhance the number and precision of such modifications and the variety of plant products available for industrial use.

Introduction of new crops for bio-based production will be limited without an adequate infrastructure for cultivar research, development, and commercialization. Satisfying the raw material needs of expanding biobased industries will require crops with the following characteristics: contain biomolecules and biochemical systems with potential industrial applications; can be manipulated to produce desirable molecules; can sustain a high level of predictable raw material production; and are supported by an infrastructure for biomass harvesting, transfer, storage, and industrial processing.

Is Simple Monoculture Better for Crop Production?

Enter your login details below. If you do not already have an account you will need to register here. Once production of your article has started, you can track the status of your article via Track Your Accepted Article. Papers concern both crop-oriented and bio-based materials from crops-oriented research, and should be of interest to an international Papers concern both crop-oriented and bio-based materials from crops-oriented research, and should be of interest to an international audience, hypothesis driven, and where comparisons are made statistics performed.

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However, according to data from Statistics Indonesia, the size of coffee estates in Indonesia are in decline as farmers have shifted their focus to products from the oil palm such as crude palm oil and palm kernel , rubber and cocoa which all have higher yields on the international market. The first Midlands media degree show features the cream of the crop of this year's graduates in photography, film, and video. With carefully planned crop rotations, the advantages of no-till crop production can be extended to soil types or situations where success is difficult. Agrii is a leading provider of agronomy services, technology and strategic advice. Greenhouse Crops in Ontario.

Principles of Field Crop Production

The data are provided at national level. The information concerns more than crop products. The earliest data are available from for cereals and from the early 's for fruits and vegetables. The statistical system has progressively improved and enlarged. Some additional crops and transmission deadlines are covered by an ESS agreement on annual crop statistics. The main data sources are administrative records, surveys and expert estimates. National Statistical Institutes or Ministries of Agriculture are responsible for the national data collection in accordance with the Regulations and agreements in force. Due to different revision policy for the EU aggregates and the Member States' data, there may be a difference between the EU aggregate and the sum of national data between updates. Please note that for paragraphs where no metadata for regional data has been specified the regional metadata is identical to the metadata for the national data.

Crop production course wikipedia

An industrial crop , also called a non-food crop , is a crop grown to produce goods for manufacturing, for example of fibre for clothing, rather than food for consumption. Industrial crops is a designation given to an enterprise that attempts to raise farm sector income, and provide economic development activities for rural areas. Industrial crops also attempt to provide products that can be used as substitutes for imports from other nations. The range of crops with non-food uses is broad, but includes traditional arable crops like wheat , as well as less conventional crops like hemp and Miscanthus. Products made from non-food crops can be categorised by function:.

Known for its comprehensive coverage, Principles of Field Crop Production introduces students to over fifty species of crops and the most current principles and practices used in crop production today.

Jump to Main Content. Federal government websites always use a. Compiled marketing and business information for fiber crops including cotton and industrial hemp. Agricultural Research Service.

Industrial, Energy, and Non-food Crops

Written Paper. Access the full text Link to PDF. Lookup at Google Scholar. The industrial crops with contribution to national income and industrial sector in terms of providing raw materials have a significant place in our crop production.

Agronomy and crop production. Horticulture is the science and art of cultivating fruits, vegetables, flowers, and ornamental plants. Ecological principles underlying crop production systems. Session topics will include cropping system management, extreme weather impact on agriculture, soil nutrition, irrigation, pest management and marketing. During their course of study students will obtain knowledge of current and cutting-edge practices in crop production and technology. Our Agronomy Advisors work with each grower on an individual basis to develop nutrient recommendations and crop nutrient management plans based upon their field needs and yield goals.

Crop production

Food is the main driving force for human and animal life. For this reason, farming is an important practice that is used worldwide. Farmers from all around the world use various farm techniques and crop production systems to produce quality crops and achieve high yields. Although there are many farming types used to grow crops worldwide, only two crop production systems are known universally among farmers; monoculture and polyculture. Monoculture crop production is the system in which a single crop is grown on the same piece of land year after year. This system is mostly practiced in large-. Monoculture is often related to the farming of important industrial crops such as:. Since monoculture implies growing genetically identical crops on the same surface, it can't be identified as a natural farming system.

The industrial crops with contribution to national income and industrial sector in terms of providing raw materials have a significant place in our crop production.

NCBI Bookshelf. The United States has abundant forests and croplands, favorable climates, accessible capital, and sophisticated technologies for a strong biobased industry. As agriculture productivity and silviculture productivity continue to increase, more biomass will be available to support a biobased industry. Advances in biotechnology will keep a continuous supply of new crops flowing into the marketplace.

Industrial crop

Government Printing Office Internet: bookstore. Environmental Protection Agency EPA to provide information of general interest regarding environmental issues associated with specific industrial sectors. McLean, VA.

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Чатрукьяна во что бы то ни стало следовало остановить. ГЛАВА 51 Джабба был похож на гигантского головастика. Подобно киноперсонажу, в честь которого он и получил свое прозвище, его тело представляло собой шар, лишенный всякой растительности.

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