Manufacturing industrial harsh woolen fabrics
A Survey of the British Wool-manufacturing Industry United States Tariff Commission. Industrial organization of the industries. Exports to the United States. The American tendency to secure the maximum output is noticeable in some cases, but comparing this country with England, at least, it may be said that the possibilities of speed have been practically reached in the latter country. So far as worsted spinning is concerned, the best mills in this country seem to be able to operate with fewer operatives per machine and to get a greater product per operative than in some EuropeanVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Manufacturing - Made in Australia
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Felt , a class of fabrics or fibrous structures obtained through the interlocking of wool , fur , or some hair fibres under conditions of heat, moisture, and friction. Other fibres will not felt alone but can be mixed with wool, which acts as a carrier. Several industries manufacture goods through the use of these properties. The goods produced include wool felt in rolls and sheets; hats, both fur and wool; and woven felts, ranging from thin billiard tablecloths to heavy industrial fabrics used for dewatering in the manufacture of paper.
Nonwoven felts are considered to be the first textile goods produced and many references may be found to it and its uses in the histories of ancient civilizations.
The nomadic tribes of north central Asia still produce felts for clothing and shelter , utilizing the methods handed down from antiquity.
Sheet felts are produced up to 4 inches 10 cm thick and usually as 36 inch 91 cm squares but other rectangular sizes as well as ovals and circles are made.
Wool felts of better grades are made of all wool but the felting power of wool is such that as little as 10 percent wool in a blend with nonfelting fibres is sufficient to produce a felt. The fibres are scoured, treated to remove tar, paint, and vegetable matter such as burrs, and then opened and blended to form a batch. The prepared blend is fed to a carding machine , which further opens, blends and combs the fibres into a web of single fibre thickness that is laid down on an endless apron to form a batt.
The carded batts are produced to predetermined weights, after which one or more batts, but usually several to a felt, are laid on a hardening machine and sprayed with water.
Hardening consists of drawing the moistened laid-up batts between aprons across a steam chamber. Steam is forced into the batts to activate the fibres, after which the steamed section is drawn beneath a heavy heated platen.
The platen is lowered onto the moist, hot batt and is agitated in a horizontal plane. The heat, moisture, and friction is sufficient to felt and interlock the fibres from the individual batts into a unified mass. After a requisite time the platen is raised, the hardened section drawn forward, and the next area, which has been steamed meanwhile, is subjected to the action of the platen.
This operation is plate hardening; a similar operation done on a continuous basis between rollers is called roller hardening. After the hardening operation, the lightly felted piece is rolled and allowed to cool and drain. Only the thickness of the batts is affected by hardening, whereas area shrinkage or felting up to as much as 50 percent is accomplished in the next operation known as fulling.
The hardened batt is passed through a fulling aid, usually a solution of soap or acid , although occasionally warm water will suffice , and is rolled up and placed in the fulling mill. One type of fulling mill consists of a binlike receptacle with a concave front, straight sides, and a back that consists of one or more movable hammers that pound, turn, and shrink the goods to the desired dimensions. The scouring, dyeing, treating, and finishing operations that follow are done much as for the production of woolen cloths.
Sheet felts follow much the same process except that after carding the batts are cut up and plied to specified sizes and weights and then hardened, fulled, and washed as individual sheets. Maximum dimensional stability, density, and strength are obtained in the sheet felt process. The uses of felt are myriad. Some of the more important include wicking, absorption, vibration isolation, insulation, padding and packaging, polishing, sealing and gasketing, as well as apparel and decorative fields.
Most felts are made to close specification requirements, particularly for mechanical and industrial applications where high standards of quality, reproduction, and tolerances are constantly met. Hair felts, widely used in polishing operations, are made much as described above for sheet felts and are an important specialty item to the wool felt industry.
Hat felts are made of both wool and fur. Wool hats are made much as already described for wool felts except that a narrow web is taken from the card and is collected on an egg-shaped mandrel. Two cone-shaped pieces are obtained from this starting shape by further felting operations from which the finished hat bodies are shaped and formed. Beaver, hare, and rabbit furs are among the fibres used in fur felt hats and all of these must first be treated with strong chemicals such as mercury.
This operation, known as carroting, provides the fibres with optimum felting power. The release of mercury fumes during the felting process led to an especially high rate of mercury poisoning within people working in the industry. In the manufacture of fur felt hats a blend of furs is laid on a rotating perforated cone surface with a wet cloth and with a vacuum pulling from within. The fur collects and is removed as a fragile cone shape.
After many wet finishing operations, including dyeing, the felted cone is molded to a rough hat shape. Many more dry finishing operations are required to reduce the rough hat to the finished article. The manufacture of woven felts follows to a large degree the conventional woolen cloth practice. Wools of selected fineness, length, and felting property are scoured, blended, combed, and spun into yarns.
The yarns are woven into the rough cloth structure required depending upon the type of end goods planned. The rough cloth is soaped and fulled or milled in the fulling mill where felting or shrinkage is carefully controlled to preset dimensions after which scouring, dyeing in the case of some of the lighter cloths , and other textile finishing operations follow.
Some special felts for the papermaking trade are made as endless belts inches 5 metres or more in width. Highly skilled operators hand weave or join the ends to produce the endless belt so that no joint or seam is discernible. Special machines are used to make this class of woven felts since the goods must be run as belts and therefore have to be loaded and unloaded from the side of the machines rather than from the front or back as is conventional.
Article Media. Info Print Cite. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. Felt fibre. See Article History. Read More on This Topic. Printed felt base is formed by applying a heavy film of paint to felt saturated with asphalt; the felt is sealed at both the top and bottom…. Get exclusive access to content from our First Edition with your subscription. Subscribe today. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:.
Printed felt base is formed by applying a heavy film of paint to felt saturated with asphalt; the felt is sealed at both the top and bottom with one or more layers of coating before application of paint, preventing discoloration from the paint….
Felt s for the press section act as conveyor belts to assist the sheet through the presses, as porous media to provide space and channels for water removal, as textured cushions or shock absorbers for pressing the moist sheet without crushing or significant marking, and as….
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A History Of The British Cotton Industry
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Wool is a type of fabric derived from the hairs of various animals. To make wool, producers harvest the hairs of animals and spin them into yarn. They then weave this yarn into garments or other forms of textiles. Wool is known for its durability and thermally insulating properties; depending on the type of hair that producers use to make wool, this fabric may benefit from the natural insulative effects that keep the animal that produced the hair warm throughout the winter.
Production and Ginning of Cotton W. Stanley Anthony. Cotton Yarn Manufacturing Phillip J. Wool Industry D. Silk Industry J. Viscose Rayon M. El Attal.
Woolen Textile Industry: Location and Distribution
Linen Mills There are more than textile mills in North Carolina. Home Textile. Pawan Tyagi, are textile technocrats from renowned textile institute, The Technological Institute of Textiles, Bhiwani with specialzation in Spinning. Italian weaving mills select only the finest linen yarns to produce their fabrics with.
Wool is a protein fiber derived from the fleece of sheep and other animals and it is also the fabric made from the wool fibers. There are about or more species of sheep that gives fleece that gets to be wool with varying degrees of perfection in length, fineness and colour. But it is not sheep alone that gives wool. Coats of goats and rabbits are also called wool; Cashmere or Mohair from different types of goats, Qiviut from the undercoat of musk oxen, and Angora wool from rabbits- all are wool.
Table of Contents
The Flemings were so expert in making woollen cloth, that it was said of them that their skill in the art of weaving was a peculiar gift conferred by nature. Large numbers of weavers came over from Flanders in the train of the Conqueror, and in the intervals of turmoil prosecuted their calling with success. In course of time they thoroughly established the trade in the country, and in the reigns of Henry I. About that time guilds or corporations were established in many of the towns where the manufacture of cloth was carried on for the purpose of its encouragement and improvement.
Log in for pricing. Wool: Blends. It also became a status symbol of wealth since anyone could have buckskin. With enough room to keep the essentials close by, the Maker's Trunk is the ideal way to carry your projects while minimizing clutter. Order wholesale blank wool pennant flags.
100% Wool Woolen Fabric
Read this article to learn about Woolen Textile Industry. After reading this article you will learn about: 1. Location of Woolen Textile Industry 2. Distribution of Woolen Textile Industry. Wool, as a raw material, is impure in nature. During process, weight loss ratio is quite high. So, the industry should be located, at least in theory, near raw material source.
In the Middle Ages , wool was turned into cloth in the thriving wool production trade, in home-based cottage industry, and in private households for family use. Methods could vary depending on the wherewithal of the producer, but the basic processes of spinning, weaving, and finishing cloth were essentially the same. Wool is usually sheared from sheep all at once, resulting in a large fleece. Occasionally, the skin of a slaughtered sheep was utilized for its wool; but the product obtained, which was called "pulled" wool, was an inferior grade to that shorn from live sheep. If the wool was intended for trade as opposed to local use , it was bound up with similar fleeces and sold or traded off until it reached its final destination in a cloth-manufacturing town.
What is Wool Fabric: Properties, How its Made and Where
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Medieval Methods for Making Fabric From Wool
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Colne Valley in West Yorkshire, was a hub of cottage industry, spinning and weaving wool into cloth in the early 19th Century. But what made this area particularly suited to the manufacture of cloth? The soil of the Colne Valley is thin and not very fertile, making it a poor choice for crop farming. People in the Valley had to find a different way to make a living, and so they started to graze sheep on the land.
Komm doch hierher, - сказал немец сдавленным голосом, сбрасывая с себя пижаму и поворачиваясь на спину. Росио через силу улыбнулась и подошла к постели. Но, посмотрев на распростертую на простынях громадную тушу, почувствовала облегчение. То, что она увидела пониже его живота, оказалось совсем крошечным. Немец схватил ее и нетерпеливо стянул с нее рубашку. Его толстые пальцы принялись методично, сантиметр за сантиметром, ощупывать ее тело.
Дверь слегка приоткрылась, и на него уставилось круглое немецкое лицо. Дэвид приветливо улыбнулся. Он не знал, как зовут этого человека. - Deutscher, ja.