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Plant fabrication constructive and architectural-building elements of buildings and structures

Plant fabrication constructive and architectural-building elements of buildings and structures

Building construction is the process of adding structure to real property. The vast majority of building construction projects are small renovations, such as addition of a room, or renovation of a bathroom. Often, the owner of the property acts as laborer, paymaster, and design team for the entire project. However, all building construction projects include some elements in common - design, financial, and legal considerations.


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Biohybrid robotics takes an engineering approach to the expansion and exploitation of biological behaviours for application to automated tasks. Here, we identify the construction of living buildings and infrastructure as a high-potential application domain for biohybrid robotics, and review technological advances relevant to its future development. Construction, civil infrastructure maintenance and building occupancy in the last decades have comprised a major portion of economic production, energy consumption and carbon emissions.

Integrating biological organisms into automated construction tasks and permanent building components therefore has high potential for impact. Live materials can provide several advantages over standard synthetic construction materials, including self-repair of damage, increase rather than degradation of structural performance over time, resilience to corrosive environments, support of biodiversity, and mitigation of urban heat islands.

Here, we review relevant technologies, which are currently disparate. They span robotics, self-organizing systems, artificial life, construction automation, structural engineering, architecture, bioengineering, biomaterials, and molecular and cellular biology.

In these disciplines, developments relevant to biohybrid construction and living buildings are in the early stages, and typically are not exchanged between disciplines. We, therefore, consider this review useful to the future development of biohybrid engineering for this highly interdisciplinary application.

Biohybrid robotic construction, a potentially broad field, couples interrelated engineered systems and biological systems. In the related fields of bioinspiration and biomimetics, extensive approaches exist for a range of applications, including building design, materials, construction and robotics see [ 1 — 4 ].

However, in this review, we look to biohybrid robotics not as a form of bioinspiration, but as a subset of robotic hybrid societies see [ 5 ] , in which biological organisms and robotic elements perform collective behaviours in a self-organizing way. With this understanding, we can define biohybrid living buildings as those where robotic, mechanical and live biological elements—potentially also with user interaction—collectively accomplish built structures for human occupancy.

Construction is a relevant application for biohybrid robotics, as biological organisms excel at producing material with limited resources, and robots excel at flexible and programmable control.

Though automation in architecture, engineering and construction AEC sectors is rapidly growing in popularity and sophistication [ 6 ], investigation of biohybrid robotics in this context is currently rare and is an emerging research trend. We are aware of two projects pursuing foundational research for biohybrid living buildings, one being our own flora robotica , for shaping biohybrid structures [ 7 , 8 ], the other being Living Architecture LIAR , for programmable energy and resource infrastructure in building components [ 9 ].

In this review, we do not address all potential aspects of biohybrid living buildings, but focus specifically on the process of construction, including operations like material deposition and shaping.

For buildings where living organisms are involved in construction, we identify the essential challenge to be steering biological growth or deposition into shapes or patterns that perform building functions.

These can include not only the structural system perhaps of multi-storey height but also building envelope functions such as shading, thermal insulation, moisture barrier, air barrier and delivery of building utilities.

Though bio-mechanical hybrid structures can conceivably be constructed by manual manipulation alone, the growth times are likely to be long and the construction tasks laborious, suggesting the usefulness of automation. Furthermore, the inclusion of self-organizing robotic partners enables continual management of the full biological deposition or growth process, which inherently involves some degree of unpredictability. In order to guide and shape biological elements during construction, robots might indirectly influence the organisms through the construction and manipulation of mechanical scaffolds, or directly influence them by providing stimuli specific to the species.

As biohybrid construction has been infrequently studied so far, we review the approaches that could be foundational for future developments. Broadly, we first review robots that interact with biological organisms, then construction involving biological organisms, and finally construction involving robot collectives. We seek to answer the following broad questions, in a sufficiently concrete way to facilitate future study: 1 which biological organisms are known to responsively deposit, generate, or shape living or non-living material and what natural mechanisms are understood to modulate these behaviours?

Though studies investigating the construction potential of biohybrid robots are rare, many existing examples of robotic interaction with organisms could be foundational for novel applications. Plants and material-depositing animals are two major categories of organisms that are candidates for biohybrid construction figure 1.

In this section, we first review the behaviours of these two organism categories that could be useful for steering or shaping their deposition or growth into constructed artefacts. We then review robots that interact with biological organisms on various scales, including organisms that might not be directly applicable to the task of construction, as their approaches to interaction could be extended in useful ways.

Natural methods of shaping and material deposition, found in plants and social insects. Image retrieved from Wikimedia Commons, from username Roberto Fiadone. Image copyright holder chose and approved the license at upload. Image retrieved from Wikimedia Commons, from username Thomas Fuhrmann. Online version in colour. Social insects e. Their construction occurs through low-level interactions among themselves and with their environment, which they continually reconstruct by building general: [ 10 ]; ants: [ 11 ]; honeybees: [ 12 ]; wasps: [ 13 , 14 ]; termites: [ 15 , 16 ].

Such substances can be pheromones emitted by the queen, by the brood, or by building workers [ 23 ]. Alternatively to pheromone gradients, there can also be gradients in the density of the physical presence of brood, workers, or building materials, which can also function as a form-giving template [ 24 ].

Construction can be complexified by cascades of environment-changing behaviours that are triggered through environmental cues and signals—a phenomenon known as stigmergy [ 25 ]. To roughly summarize, stigmergy is a category of mechanisms by which social insects communicate among themselves not directly but by responding to the conditions found in the environment, which may have been modified by any of the insects [ 26 ].

One example of this is termite nest-building as shown in figure 1 b , where the termites do not directly communicate about what to build, but rather simply respond to the already placed material in making their individual decision about where to place the next [ 25 ].

Another example is in how ants forage for food, wherein they again do not communicate directly, but rather choose their path based on the pheromone trails collectively left by the colony [ 27 ]. The presence of these behavioural feedback loops, and the nonlinearity of stimulus—response relationships, can lead to a significant increase in the complexity of the produced nests [ 10 ]. Beyond social insects, many animals construct their nests through material collection and deposition, including birds [ 28 ], badgers [ 29 ], mole rats [ 30 ] and beavers [ 31 ].

Beavers, as a prominent example, exhibit a construction activity that can be seen from a stigmergic perspective. The beaver not only constructs its nest by depositing material collected in the surrounding environment but uses this material to construct water dams which in turn heavily shape that environment.

The resultant environmental changes can then trigger further building activities in the nest or dam e. Some animals also construct nests by depositing material they have secreted. Prominently, silkworms build cocoons from secreted protein forming strong fibres [ 32 ], somewhat similar to spiders weaving their nets [ 33 ]. The nest construction of paper wasps and termites has been modelled several times with qualitatively different approaches.

However, the cognitive abilities of individual modelled wasps need to be strong in this approach, able to process different nest configuration properties. Other studies show that an alternative approach—simple sets of a few locally applied rules—can also be derived from observing the wasps.

These sets are capable of modelling the dynamics of nest growth, suggesting that the wasps may govern their construction behaviours using only a few simple rules based on simple local assessments [ 13 , 14 ]. As a construction principle, this looks rather general and applicable across many domains. However, the study of [ 35 ] suggests that behaviours evolved in nature are evolved for a specific animal, task and environment, and therefore the derived construction principle may not be useful for understanding animal construction generally.

In the related fields of bioinspiration and biomimetics, if the desired application closely resembles the conditions of the biological inspiration source, models have been successfully translated across physical spatio-temporal domains. For example, collective transport of material observed in ants has successfully been used as a modelling inspiration to develop control for autonomous robot swarms which collectively transport objects [ 36 , 37 ].

This suggests that extending such models to biohybrid cases, where robots and organisms collaborate, could be investigated. In addition to the behaviours of material-depositing animals, we look at the behaviours of plants that may be relevant for shaping biohybrid artefacts.

Perhaps contradicting common perception, plants show a remarkable diversity of movements. Apart from passive propagules detached pieces riding external forces and motion due to purely physical processes e. Active plant movements can be grouped into:.

Of the autonomous movements, the most universal is circumnutation, which occurs in elongating tissues of all plants. This behaviour, whereby tissues wind around their mean growth direction, is most notable in climbing plants that wind around a support, such as the common bean or morning glory [ 39 — 41 ]. This basic motion interacts with other motion behaviours, especially irreversible tropisms involving growth. Because of the context of applying robot—organism interaction to construction, we focus on the directional tropisms of plants, reviewed below.

In natural settings, many of these responses occur simultaneously, with the strength of each response weighted differently according to species, developmental stage, tissue and situation. Tropisms are directed growth responses guided by stimuli and enacted through the plant hormone auxin. Plants react to a variety of environmental cues with tropic movements, particularly at the roots [ 43 — 45 ].

Tropic changes in growth direction occur by redistributing concentrations of auxin, triggering anisotropic growth and thus inducing curvature. Plants employ gravity as a primary spatial cue to orient their growth, via gravitropism. Stems generally grow against the gravity vector, while roots grow along it. Lateral roots, branches, or leaves often keep the gravity vector at a constant angle to their growth direction.

Gravity is sensed in regions near growth tips of shoots or roots via subcellular statoliths [ 46 ], ultimately leading to anisotropic expansion and division of cells, causing directional re-orientation [ 47 ]. Even small gravitational forces as little as 0. Plants react and adapt to mechanical impacts on all scales [ 49 — 51 ], from stretch-activated ion-channels in cell membranes to wind-swept trees minimizing surface of exposure [ 52 , 53 ].

Although gravity is a type of mechanical stimulus, the sensing and signalling pathways for gravitropic responses only partially overlap with those for other mechanical impact responses [ 54 ].

In general, mechanical forces provide plants with information about their environments and themselves, allowing for adaptive behaviour [ 55 ]. Thigmotropism touch-guided growth can readily be observed in root tips growing along the edge of dense soil clumps, assessing and following the penetrability of the material while still generally satisfying their gravitropism [ 56 , 57 ]. Another thigmotropic mechanism, common in climbing plants, helps tendrils coil quickly around objects they touch using ionic signalling and differential turgor-changes.

If the stimulus is only transient, tendrils can uncoil again. However, if irreversible responses growth and lignification have already occurred, the coiling can no longer be undone [ 58 , 59 ]. Plants perceive light wavelengths from UV-B to far-red — nm , incorporating it in a number of ways. For example, the incident direction and duration of photoreceptor exposure is used to help time key developmental decisions and to continuously direct growth to exploit the most promising local light situation [ 60 — 62 ].

Additionally, light in the visual spectrum — nm is a necessary food staple of plants and is absorbed via photosynthesis [ 63 — 65 ]. Concurrently, phototropism directs growth trajectories relative to the incident angle of light, for which the typical sensing mechanism is well-characterized. Blue light and to a lesser extent UV light excites membrane-bound proteins, relaying the signal to the cell or to responding tissues further away.

This again leads to the same redistribution of auxin concentrations, and subsequently anisotropic growth [ 66 — 68 ].

Phototropic responses and their intensities vary largely across species, developmental stages, and tissues. For instance, some climbing plants will temporarily employ skototropism growth towards shade to find a support to climb, by growing towards the darkest spot, but not necessarily away from the brightest.

There are also reversible directional responses to light, such as the light-stimulated movement of leaves [ 69 , 70 ] or the famous heliotropic movement of young sunflowers before the flower opens [ 71 ].

Being photosynthetic organisms, actively avoiding shade is a major benefit to plants. They have evolved complex strategies to manage shade or potential shade by harnessing their full arsenal of light receptors [ 72 ]. These strategies include the avoidance of projected future shade from nearby competitors by triggering the well-researched shade avoidance syndrome SAS [ 73 ].

This response is triggered by spectra enriched in far-red and possibly green: [ 74 ] light, a good indicator of the proximity of chlorophyll-bearing organisms. Mechanical stimulation and plant-emitted volatile chemicals can also feed into this response [ 61 , 73 ].

It usually results in elongated stems and in petioles with reduced branching and root growth. Meanwhile leaves tilt upwards hyponasty in an attempt to outgrow competitors. Much less is known about shade-tolerance mode, which is employed by plants growing under a dense canopy to cope with long-term shaded conditions.

Industrialised Building Speech, 1954

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Conducted annually by the American Institute of Steel. The award is the highest honor bestowed on building projects by the structural steel industry in the U. Each year, awards for each winning project are presented to the project team members involved in the design and construction of the structural framing system, including the architect, structural engineer, general contractor, detailer, fabricator, erector and owner.

CPCI manufacturing members number 46, with 57 plants throughout Canada with over ,sq. The inherent benefits of precast prestressed concrete make it the best choice for many projects. Structural strength provides long clear spans. Fast production, delivery and erection saves time and money. The creative dimensions of shape, texture, colour and pattern produce attractive buildings.


Between the use of advanced technology for construction and the desire to develop a holistic design approach to architecture, we engage with different areas of research that include robotic manufacturing, material research and performance-based design. The programme seeks to develop technological and architectural solutions in collaboration with Industry partners to answer the current needs and challenges of our habitat. The Postgraduate in 3D Printing Architecture is a programme of applied research. It is axed around the continuity of the development of a body of research long explored in the Institute together with our industry partners. The course is structured in 3 phases : explorations, a series of exercises to gain knowledge into the topic followed by a design charrette and the construction of a prototype that ambitions to be as close a possible to a real building fragment. The content of the course is structured into 3 areas of research:. We develop a performance-based approach to design for 3D printed architectural solutions. Within the realms of a design project for a complex humanitarian situation, the design of buildings is the result of a complex negotiation between fulfilling climatic, structural, manufacturing and habitation purposes. Eco-friendly material printing resides in the control of robotic technology and the mastering of its complex materiality.

Structures: The Latest Architecture and News

Construction is the process of constructing a building or infrastructure. Large-scale construction requires collaboration across multiple disciplines. A project manager normally manages the budget on the job, and a construction manager , design engineer , construction engineer or architect supervises it. Those involved with the design and execution must consider zoning requirements, environmental impact of the job, scheduling , budgeting , construction-site safety , availability and transportation of building materials , logistics, inconvenience to the public caused by construction delays and bidding.

Biohybrid robotics takes an engineering approach to the expansion and exploitation of biological behaviours for application to automated tasks.

Fabrication is the process used to manufacture steelwork components that will, when assembled and joined, form a complete frame. The frame generally uses readily available standard sections that are purchased from the steelmaker or steel stockholder, together with such items as protective coatings and bolts from other specialist suppliers. Although a wide range of section shapes and sizes are produced, the designer may find that the required section size is not available.

Typical structural systems

Koen Steemers , Simos Yannas. PLEA is a network of individuals sharing expertise in the arts, sciences, planning and design of the built environment. It serves as an international, interdisciplinary forum to promote discourse on environmental quality in architecture and planning.

International Database and Gallery of Structures. Google Bot Logout. Bridges and Viaducts. Towers and Masts. Tunnels, Caverns and Shafts.

13 structural steel buildings that dazzle

On the extensive introduction of industrial methods, improving the quality and reducing the cost of construction. It is a long time since we last had a National Conference of Builders and there is now great need for such a conference. It is my opinion that the present meeting will be to the great good not just of construction, but of all our work both in industry and in other sectors of our national economy. What are these conditions? First and foremost, we now have a large pool of qualified workers and specialists. Our building organisations and construction-material-manufacturing industry employ many thousands of fine craftsmen and innovators in production. We have factories capable of supplying our builders with modern equipment that makes work easier and improves productivity.

2 Construction of Buildings Foundation; 3 Wood Construction; 4 Concrete & Reinforced Concrete; 5 Steel and Composite Structures; 6 Finishing Materials.

However, when thinking about larger-scale housing or buildings, it's important to take certain precautions that ensure good quality and good construction behavior. We spoke with the experts of Simpson Strong Tie , a leading company in structural connectors, anchors, and fastening systems, to learn more about these topics. Here are six important lessons and tips for building safer and more resistant wooden houses and buildings.


Wood products are suited to almost all new-build and renovation construction. Wood structures can be used in different applications in buildings, be they tall tower blocks, large halls or bridges. In addition to structures, common uses for wood products are windows and doors, interior decoration and furniture.

Proceedings of the Third International Congress on Construction History [3 Volumes]

Prefabrication is the practice of assembling components of a structure in a factory or other manufacturing site, and transporting complete assemblies or sub-assemblies to the construction site where the structure is to be located. The term is used to distinguish this process from the more conventional construction practice of transporting the basic materials to the construction site where all assembly is carried out. The term prefabrication also applies to the manufacturing of things other than structures at a fixed site. It is frequently used when fabrication of a section of a machine or any movable structure is shifted from the main manufacturing site to another location, and the section is supplied assembled and ready to fit.

Nexus Network Journal.

- Она не дала ему договорить. Бринкерхофф почти физически ощущал, как интенсивно работают клеточки ее мозга.

- Помнишь, что случилось в прошлом году, когда Стратмор занимался антисемитской террористической группой в Калифорнии? - напомнила. Бринкерхофф кивнул.

Он смотрел на огромную толпу панков, какую ему еще никогда не доводилось видеть. Повсюду мелькали красно-бело-синие прически. Беккер вздохнул, взвешивая свои возможности. Где ей еще быть в субботний вечер. Проклиная судьбу, он вылез из автобуса. К клубу вела узкая аллея. Как только он оказался там, его сразу же увлек за собой поток молодых людей.

Не верю, - возразила Сьюзан.  - Танкадо был известен стремлением к совершенству. Вы сами это знаете. Он никогда не оставил бы жучков в своей программе.

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  1. Dagar

    Earlier I thought differently, I thank for the help in this question.