Produce fabrication chemical current sources
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Manufacturing processes and metals industries, including renewable energy technologies, play key roles in these transitions. Solar photovoltaics, wind power, and energy storage systems offer viable alternatives to fossil fuels—but they also have environmental, economic, and social impacts. The goals, said Roundtable co-chair Lynn Scarlett , The Nature Conservancy, were examining the sustainability implications of material demands and manufacturing processes associated with renewable energy technologies; mobilizing, encouraging, and catalyzing the use of scientific knowledge; and stimulating additional research.VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Ideal and Practical Current Sources
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- Chemical Engineering
- Introductory Chapter: Textile Manufacturing Processes
- Lithium: Sources, Production, Uses, and Recovery Outlook
- Mos capacitor fabrication steps
- Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System
- Introductory Chapter: Textile Manufacturing Processes
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- Putting CO2 to Use
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The demand for lithium has increased significantly during the last decade as it has become key for the development of industrial products, especially batteries for electronic devices and electric vehicles. This article reviews sources, extraction and production, uses, and recovery and recycling, all of which are important aspects when evaluating lithium as a key resource. First, it describes the estimated reserves and lithium production from brine and pegmatites, including the material and energy requirements.
Then, it continues with a description about the current uses of lithium focusing on its application in batteries and concludes with a description of the opportunities for recovery and recycling and the future demand forecast. Thus, in the next years, the recovery and recycling of lithium from batteries is decisive to ensure the long-term viability of the metal. New technologies often mean new ways of producing and consuming material and energy sources. In general, technologies are becoming more sophisticated, and products require the use of materials that are often nonrenewable and scarce.
Among those materials, metals have potentially important applications in technologies such as rechargeable batteries for hybrid and electric cars, permanent magnets for maglev trains, wind turbines and motors, and solar panels. For example neodymium Nd , a rare-earth metal used for neodymium-iron-boron Nd-Fe-B magnets in hard disk drives for personal computers, forms extremely stable compounds with elements like oxygen, which makes its reuse and recycling very difficult.
As a result, almost the entire amount of neodymium is dissipated and ends as a waste. Although lithium has a low supply risk and there are possible substitutes depending on its applications, it is considered a critical metal due to its high economic importance.
The aim of this article is to describe the sources, production, and uses of lithium from a strictly resource point of view to shed some light on the availability of lithium-containing technologies. First, the article explains the sources of lithium, analyzes its current production processes, and describes its uses on a global scale. Then, it describes the current recovery and recycling, and it estimates how increasing demand for lithium batteries can affect its production.
The article finishes with a forecast on the future demand of lithium for batteries of electric vehicles. The major sources of lithium are contained in brine lake deposits also referred as salars Footnote 1 and pegmatites.
Brines with high lithium about 0. Salars with lower lithium concentration are located in the United States and the Tibetan Plateau. Lithium is currently extracted from 13 pegmatite deposits; the largest production mine is Greenbushes in Australia. The economic feasibility depends on the size of the deposit, the content of lithium, the content of other elements such calcium and magnesium, which might interfere during extraction and processing , and the processes used to remove the lithium-bearing material and extract lithium from it.
Kunasz 19 argued that some of those estimates are overvalued as calculations followed hard rock deposit guidelines. Brines are fluids, as various elements occur as ions in a dynamic fluid, rather than being chemically bonded in a solid.
A preliminary resource estimate should include the flow potential and hydraulic parameters, as there are fine-grained sediments that will not release brine upon pumping and thus must not be included for the resource estimates. Despite the market downturn from , new companies are exploring for lithium reserves. In June , vast lithium deposits were discovered in northern Afghanistan. The production capacities and amounts of metals reported in statistics show that the metallurgical industry is a rapidly moving sector, especially with the increasing application of metals by new technologies.
The amount of lithium from pegmatites almost doubled its production from , despite its high energy and transport costs of pegmatites as spodumene occurs in relatively small deposits. In recent years, the production of lithium from spodumene has gained importance I as its price and application in batteries has increased and II as an additional source of tantalum, a scarce metal with high economic value used for capacitors in most of electrical and electronic circuits.
From brine, tonnes were recovered, which supplied tonnes of lithium. The rest of lithium production tonnes was supplied by the extraction of pegmatites. Production sources of lithium in in tonnes As illustrated, each tonne of lithium requires 5. Thus, in terms of mass, the production of lithium from brine is more efficient than the production from pegmatites.
Because evaporation is done using solar energy, the production of lithium from dry lakes is the most affordable and competitive of all processes. The most interfering substance is magnesium, which is removed by two-step precipitation using sodium carbonate Na 2 CO 3 and lime CaO. The best evaporation rates are achieved in strong solar radiation, low humidity, moderately intense winds, and low rainfall conditions.
During evaporation processes, other important factors to take into account are lithium concentration and the magnesium lithium ratio. High magnesium lithium ratios slow down evaporation rates and reduce the yield. The lithium concentration of Salar del Hombre Muerto is half that of Atacama but the magnesium lithium ratio is lower; thus, solar evaporation is feasible.
Each tonne of lithium carbonate Li 2 CO 3 requires 1. Among those, spodumene is the most abundant lithium ore. Spodumene concentrate is used to produce lithium carbonate Li 2 CO 3 and then lithium metal. Lithium carbonate Li 2 CO 3 is economically more competitive because of its higher lithium content, but for certain applications such as pharmaceutical and plastics, lithium metal is still preferred.
Through this process, the hydrogen of the sulfuric acid is replaced by lithium ions to generate lithium sulfate Li 2 SO 4 and an insoluble ore residue.
The excess of sulfuric acid is neutralized with limestone CaCO 3. The resulting slurry is after that filtered to separate ore residues resulting in a concentrated calcium sulfate Ca 2 SO 4 solution free of iron and aluminum. Magnesium content is precipitated using lime CaO and then calcium using soda ash Na 2 CO 3 generated as by-products during precipitation of sodium sulfate Na 2 SO 4.
Lithium carbonate is the raw material to produce many lithium-derived compounds, including the cathode and electrolyte material for lithium ion batteries LIBs. Dunn et al. Despite the energy use to transport soda ash for Li 2 CO 3 production from the United States to Chile, LMO from the United States still has the greatest energy demand due to more dilute lithium in brine, higher lime consumption, and combustion of residual oil.
Lithium is extracted from brine and spodumene as lithium carbonate Li 2 CO 3 , which is directly used or further processed. Lithium hydroxide LiOH is used for producing special inorganic compounds as absorbers of carbon dioxide or further processed to lithium phosphate Li 3 PO 4 , lithium hypochlorite LiOCl , lithium oxide Li 2 O , peroxide Li 2 O 2 , and others to be used as catalysts, in sanitation, neutron absorber, and photographic developer solutions.
Lithium chloride LiCl is used as electrolyte in batteries or further processed to produce lithium metal for lead and magnesium alloys, lithium hydride LiH for high-purity silane, and lithium nitride Li 3 N used as catalyst. The rest of lithium is used for producing intermediates as lithium hydroxide LiOH , lithium chloride LiCl , and metal lithium.
Unfortunately, the amounts of intermediates are not available, and current published data do not permit to develop a more precise substance flow analysis of lithium. For instance, lithium used in batteries, which is estimated to be tonnes, can be in the form of lithium carbonate, lithium hydroxide, and lithium metal.
The amount of each of these substances is not disclosed in current statistics. As illustrated in Fig. Depending on the lifetime of these products, this lithium could in theory be recovered at some point in the future. In some uses such as catalysts or absorbers, lithium is most likely recycled within the process but eventually will become waste because this is not a recoverable fraction. The increase in demand for lithium and the recycling targets set by some economies, as the European Commission, is expected to drive more interest to its recycling.
Lithium batteries can be divided in primary one use and secondary batteries rechargeable. Primary batteries use metallic lithium as an anode and a salt of lithium dissolved in an organic solvent as an electrolyte. Secondary batteries use graphite as an anode, lithium metal oxide LiMeO 2 as a cathode, and a lithium salt in an organic solvent as an electrolyte. The most commercialized lithium secondary batteries are lithium ion Li-ion and polymer Li-poly.
Secondary lithium batteries are used in cordless tools, portable computers and telephones, video cameras, tablets, and electric vehicles. The lithium content in batteries varies from 0. Lithium ion batteries also provide three times the voltage of NiCd and NiMH; thus, it helps reduce the dimension of electronic devices and allows partial charging.
As China is recognized as a major base of production for lithium batteries, major automobile and established battery manufacturers have taken different actions to secure low-cost supply of lithium.
Such actions include purchasing a part of lithium-producing companies, diversifying lithium sources, establishing partnerships to build battery plants for hybrid and electric-drive vehicles, and beginning mass production of Li ion batteries. On the other hand, spent batteries are becoming an attractive source for lithium supply.
Lithium recovery and recycling can happen during mining and processing preconsumer recycling and at the disposal of lithium-containing products postconsumer recycling. Estimating the recycling rates of pre-consumer recycling is easier because the sources of waste generation are well known and also waste is generated continuously and scaled in relation to product production.
Postconsumer recycling is harder to estimate as some lithium applications, such as lubricating greases, medical and pharmaceutical use, and sanitation, are dissipative. Nondissipative uses of lithium, such as in aluminum production and casting, metal alloys, and batteries, are also hard to estimate due to its low content and the time to reach the waste management sector.
Lithium anodes can be used to produce secondary lithium batteries, and lithium electrolyte can be separated and converted to lithium carbonate Li 2 CO 3 for resale. In secondary batteries, lithium can be recovered from cathodes.
The processes used for recycling rechargeable batteries are as follows: hydrometallurgical, intermediate physical, direct physical, and pyrometallurgical. By this process, the cathode-containing lithium compounds are treated by a bath of N -methylpyrrolidone to separate aluminum.
Next it is calcined, ground, and the metals are leached with hydrogen peroxide H 2 O 2 and organic acid. The black mass is further chemically processed with sodium carbonate Na 2 CO 3 to produce lithium carbonate Li 2 CO 3. Then, the electrolyte is separated from the cell by supercritical carbon dioxide CO 2. The cell undergoes pulverization or other size-reduction steps, and the components are separated by electronic conductivity, density, or other techniques to separate out the metals.
By this process, lithium is recovered as lithium cobalt oxide LiCoO 2. Using recycled cobalt and nickel in new batteries reduces fossil fuel use by A less common recycling process to recover lithium from batteries and preconsumer scrap is cryogenization. Lithium is then extracted by flooding the battery chambers in a caustic bath that dissolves lithium salts, which are filtered out and used to produce lithium carbonate Li 2 CO 3.
The remaining sludge is processed to recover cobalt for battery electrodes. Currently, recycling of lithium batteries is done by a few companies in Asia, Europe, and North America. Although there is an increasing number of companies recycling lithium, statistical data state that preconsumer and postconsumer lithium recycling is insignificant due to the low lithium concentration in final products. Dewulf et al. The collection and recycling of lithium batteries are due to increase in the near future as spent lithium batteries start reaching the waste management sector.
It is difficult estimating batteries and lithium recycling rates. In secondary markets, used electric and electronic devices generally from developed economies are bought and sold to developing countries.
This is partially because those retired devices tend to be in good condition as they are currently replaced before the end of their technical life. Most of the LIBs were imported from China tonnes , Japan tonnes , Korea tonnes , and Indonesia tonnes , with only 23 tonnes of batteries from Europe. The creation of secondary markets for batteries in Taiwan helped increase the useful life of a battery by a second use phase; however, as the waste management infrastructure and legislation are less stringent, proper recycling and recovery of metals is not assured.
The demand for lithium is due to increase drastically in the battery sector mainly because of the growth of electric vehicles and electronic devices mainly mobile phones, portable computers, and tablets. Free parking is also offered to electric vehicles in Copenhagen and other cities, and there is free recharging at some parking spaces.
New opportunities to use carbon dioxide CO2 in the development of products and services are capturing the attention of governments, industry and the investment community interested in mitigating climate change as well as in other factors, including technology leadership and supporting a circular economy. This analysis considers the near-term market potential for five key categories of CO2-derived products and services: fuels, chemicals, building materials from minerals, building materials from waste, and CO2 use to enhance the yields of biological processes. CO2 use can support climate goals where the application is scalable, uses low-carbon energy and displaces a product with higher life-cycle emissions. Some CO2-derived products also involve permanent carbon retention, in particular building materials. A better understanding and improved methodology to quantify the life-cycle climate benefits of CO2 use applications are needed.
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Introductory Chapter: Textile Manufacturing Processes
Reviewed: June 11th Published: August 28th Textile Manufacturing Processes. Textile fibers provided an integral component in modern society and physical structure known for human comfort and sustainability. Man is a friend of fashion in nature. The desire for better garment and apparel resulted in the development of textile fiber production and textile manufacturing process. Primarily the natural textile fibers meet the requirements for human consumption in terms of the comfort and aesthetic trends. Cotton, wool, and silk were the important natural fibers for human clothing articles, where cotton for its outstanding properties and versatile utilization was known as the King Cotton. The advancement of fiber manufacturing introduced several man-made fibers for conventional textile products; however, cotton is to date a leading textile fiber in home textiles and clothing articles. The chemistry of cotton fiber is the principal source of interesting and useful properties required in finished textile products [ 2 ]. Strength, softness, absorbency, dyeing and printing properties, comfort, air permeability, etc.
Lithium: Sources, Production, Uses, and Recovery Outlook
The demand for lithium has increased significantly during the last decade as it has become key for the development of industrial products, especially batteries for electronic devices and electric vehicles. This article reviews sources, extraction and production, uses, and recovery and recycling, all of which are important aspects when evaluating lithium as a key resource. First, it describes the estimated reserves and lithium production from brine and pegmatites, including the material and energy requirements. Then, it continues with a description about the current uses of lithium focusing on its application in batteries and concludes with a description of the opportunities for recovery and recycling and the future demand forecast.
They are intended to be living documents and are occasionally updated. The EHS Guidelines contain the performance levels and measures that are normally acceptable to the World Bank Group, and that are generally considered to be achievable in new facilities at reasonable costs by existing technology. When host country regulations differ from the levels and measures presented in the EHS Guidelines, projects will be required to achieve whichever is more stringent.
Mos capacitor fabrication steps
Hydrogen production is the family of industrial methods for generating hydrogen. Hydrogen is primarily produced by steam reforming of natural gas. Other major sources include naphtha or oil reforming of refinery or other industrial off-gases, partial oxidation of coal and other hydrocarbons, and steam cracking natural gas liquids such as ethane, propane and butane.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Deep Cycle Battery 101 manufacturing - OEM ending
Industrial production and manufacturing production both rebounded 1. These sharp November increases were largely due to a bounceback in the output of motor vehicles and parts following the end of a strike at a major manufacturer. Excluding motor vehicles and parts, the indexes for total industrial production and for manufacturing moved up 0. Mining production edged down 0. At
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Account Options Sign in. Solar Energy Update. Selected pages Table of Contents. Contents sion OTEC systems based on exploitation sites. Solar Collectors and Concentrators conversion systems and power transmission. Heat Storage 01 Applications. Tidal Power Plants. Solar Energy Update Full view -
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Introductory Chapter: Textile Manufacturing Processes
Body-biasing is used to modulate threshold voltage V t of transistors. The fabrication of integrated circuits consists basically of the following process steps: Lithography: The process for pattern definition by applying thin uniform layer of viscous liquid photo-resist on the wafer surface. The MOS capacitor is often used as a test structure to monitor various fabrication steps in semiconductor processing.
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The United States is a highly industrialized country. Click to enlarge. Most industries purchase electricity from electric utilities or independent power producers. Some industrial facilities also generate electricity for use at their plants using fuels that they purchase or using residues from their industrial processes.
For decades, commercial lithium production relied on mineral ore sources such as spodumene, petalite, and lepidolite. However, extracting lithium from these sources is significantly more costly than extracting the metal from lithium-containing brines. In fact, the cost of extracting lithium from hard rock is estimated to be double that of producing from brines, explaining why most of these sources have been priced out of the market since the early s. Salar brines can be described as underground reservoirs that contain high concentrations of dissolved salts such as lithium, potassium, and sodium.
Putting CO2 to Use
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Хейл попытался пошевелить руками, но понял, что накрепко связан. На лице его появилось выражение животного страха. - Отпусти .