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VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Furs - Manufacture Process

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Biodegradation of Sheep Wool Geotextiles Designed for Erosion Control

Integration of livestock with perennial crops Modalities of integration Components of the integrated system Constraints of integrated systems Examples of integration Conclusions Bibliography M. The integration of livestock with perennial crops may also increase productivity per unit of land in a sustainable manner. Livestock have been associated with perennial crops in one way or another for a long time. Various domestic animals roaming around the backyard underneath fruit-trees is a common scene in tropical regions.

It has also been a traditional practice in many areas of the world to use animals, especially sheep, to control weeds in plantations. People benefit from the proximity of plantations where they can graze their animals, if permitted, or collect forage for their livestock kept in confinement.

There are several advantages of integrating animals with perennial crops, apart from the direct benefits of their products meat, milk, fleece, skins and manure.

Grazing animals reduce or eliminate the need for weed control. Undesirable plants, or weeds, become forage, and thus the basis for animal production. Biological weed control using animals offers a much better and cheaper alternative to using herbicides, which could represent a potential hazard to the human and animal environment.

Most of the studies and observations made on animals grazing perennial crops have shown increased yields of the main crop - trees. This is probably because of the combined effects of weed control and improved recycling or availability of soil nutrients.

Animal production may be the only source of income during the first few years of tree growth, before they become productive. The presence of livestock in plantations keeps the understorey vegetation shorter, which in the case of rubber tree plantations facilitates the daily passage by tappers and in coconut plantations it makes the locating and gathering of nuts much easier.

The system of integrating livestock with perennial crops must be comprehensive, taking all system components into consideration. In most cases, the perennial crop is the main element of, if not the reason for, the system, and it should therefore receive priority. Other physical soil, nutrients, water, light and biological understorey vegetation, animals components also need to be taken into account, however, and certain compromises in the main crop's potential yield may have to be made in order to have greater total productivity and income and a more sustain-able and environmental] y friendly system.

Modalities of integration The integration of livestock with perennial crops can be practised in many different ways in relation to time, space and climatic conditions, independent from the specific species of plants and animals involved. One of the simplest approaches is to use neighbours' animals to graze the natural annual vegetation growing during certain times of the year, particularly after the rainy season, for example, sheep grazing in olive-growing regions Vera y Vega, or the seasonal feeding of prunings, such as orange prunings for sheep Borroto et al.

In semi-arid regions, seasonal multi-animal grazing is practised in plantations of Agave and Opuntia species. A more continuous integration is the year-round grazing of local animals on native vegetation growing in tropical tree plantations, for example, ruminants under coconut trees Reynolds, In a more sophisticated system, both the understorey vegetation and the animal species are specifically selected for the integrated system, taking into consideration the existing characteristics of the perennial crop, the soil and the climate.

A further refinement is to plant the perennial crop using spacing and patterns that would be most beneficial for the whole integrated system, paying particular attention to the light requirements of the cover crop, such as oil-palms, planted with animal integration in mind.

Components of the integrated system Physical components Soil and minerals. The physical and chemical characteristics of the soil partly determine the kind of forage species that grow naturally or that can be introduced.

Limited modifications in the soil structure can be envisaged in order to promote the growth of the natural vegetation or that of the cover crop. For example, the addition of lime or phosphorus fertilizers would promote legume growth Skerman, Cameron and Riveros, Depending on existing conditions, there could be competition for water and minerals between the main crop and the understorey vegetation. The presence of the latter will, of course, increase the organic matter of the soil and thus improve its water-holding capacity and fertility.

Ruminants speed up the recycling of nutrients back into the soil via urine and faeces following the microbial digestion and the metabolism within the body. In certain circumstances, some soil structures might not tolerate the presence of grazing animals because of excessive soil moisture or the potential problem of soil compaction.

The latter would also need to be taken into consideration in the case of mechanical harvesting or cut-and-carry systems. Water availability is one of the main factors determining the seasonality of forage growth. In the humid tropics, there could be adequate moisture for forage growth during most of the year, but the lack of forage during the dry season would be the main factor limiting the integration of animal production into plantations.

Consequently, light could become the single most limiting factor for forage growth Chen, Wong and Dahlan, The typical cycle of plant composition under rubber trees or oil-palm begins with a mixture of grasses, legumes and other forbs, depending on whether the vegetation is natural or artificially planted.

After a few years the broadleaves and legumes disappear and only some grasses will remain Wong, Eventually all understorey plants will cease to grow until the canopy stretches vertically and some light gets through by reflection.

The species that start to grow at this stage depend not only on the light conditions but also on the availability of seeds for self-regeneration. The pattern in which trees are planted can make a difference in terms of light interception.

In tropical areas, trees aligned east-west would allow maximal light penetration to the understorey vegetation. Biological components Perennial crop. Above all other factors, the nature of the main crop and its cultural practices determine whether any integration is possible at all, or its modality. Favourable plants for livestock integration would be those least prone to damage by animals because of their height, palatability or toughness of stems and leaves.

Adult trees such as palms oil and coconut and rubber trees, thorny xerophytes such as Agave and Opuntia, or unpalatable plants, for example, Aloe vera, are good possibilities.

Fruit-trees could also be used for integrated systems once they have reached a certain height. Among tropical fruit-trees, mango, avocado, rambutan and durian trees would be suitable, as would pear, peach, apple, orange and olive trees among the temperate fruit-trees. Work has been ongoing in Cuba to develop a system of integrating Peliguey sheep into orange plantations Borroto et al. The main problem encountered here has been how to keep damage to the low branches to a minimum by means of grazing systems and restraining devices.

In modern, intensively operated orange plantations where trees are pruned low for easier picking and where fruit-bearing branches reach the ground for maximized yields, grazing would not be desirable. In older plantations with higher canopies, however, the presence of animals may not cause any more damage than that caused by agricultural pruning and weed control equipment.

Understorey vegetation. In the simplest forms of integration, natural vegetation in plantations is used for grazing or cut-and-carry. Some of the unpalatable vegetation, such as Eupatorium odoratum, Melastoma malabathricum and Imperata cilindrica, and toxic species, such as Lantana camara and Asclepias curassavica, will remain as weeds, while most of the rest will be used as forage once the animals enter the system. Species growing spontaneously at any particular place might be a mixture of grasses, legumes and broad-leaved plants.

Some of these would be consumed more than others, depending on the animal species involved Tajuddin and Chong, ; for instance, sheep prefer tropical legumes and broadleaves over grasses. When the understorey vegetation is artificially planted, it is referred to as cover crop.

If properly selected, it offers many advantages for the main crop and the system as a whole. The ideal cover crop should have the following attributes: easy establishment either vegetatively or, preferably, from seed; excellent soil cover without climbing up the main crop; minimum competition for water and nutrients; adequate nitrogen-fixing capacity; good growth under a variety of light penetration levels characteristic of the main crop; persistence under grazing or cut-and-carry systems; high palatability and nutritive value for the intended animal species; and low potential of becoming a weed beyond the integrated system.

In tropical climates, legumes are preferred over grasses for integrated systems with small ruminants since they are generally more nutritious and contribute to higher levels of animal production.

Some tropical legumes are not palatable to animals, such as Calopogonium caerulium. The standard mixture of legumes currently used as cover crops for rubber and oil-palm plantations in Southeast Asia includes Centrosema pubescens, Pueraria phaseoloides, Calopogonium muconoides and Calopogonium caerulium. Of these, only C. The latter species are the most shade-tolerant, however, and thus last longer underneath trees. The animal species that have been used with perennial crops range from cattle under coconuts South Pacific and oil-palms Malaysia and Cameroon to geese under orange trees Cuba and ducks under plantains Dominican Republic.

Sheep, because of their docile nature and tendency to graze rather than browse, have been preferred in association with rubber Malaysia, Indonesia , orange Cuba , peach Mexico , olive Spain and other fruit-trees. They also integrate well in Aloe vera plantations in the Dominican Republic. They do not consume the aloe leaves except for a few days right after harvest when the aloin-free tissue is temporarily exposed.

Dwarf goats from Southeast Asia have been integrated in rubber plantations in Indonesia. Their small size prevents them from causing any major damage to tree foliage, provided that there is plenty of forage for them to select. A study recently completed in Cuba F. Ojeda, personal communication has shown the potential of grazing horses in orange plantations.

Horses are able to eat very low-quality grasses and do not touch the foliage from orange trees. Under cut-and-carry systems, all ruminant and herbivore animal species that can be kept in confinement may be integrated with perennial crops. It is only under direct grazing systems that the animals need to be well selected. For example, poultry chickens, turkeys, guinea fowl , small deer and small African antelopes would be suitable for integration with perennial crops.

The management of livestock under perennial crops has varied from practically non-existent, where the animals are released during the day to roam freely on the plantations, to grazing with a shepherd, to rotational grazing with electric fences. Much better use of the forage resources is achieved with controlled grazing, both in terms of space and time. There is also less risk of tree damage since the animals are brought to the plantation only to graze and can be supervised.

Ideally, they should spend their periods of rumination and rest in the corrals. Energy, sodium and other minerals are the nutrients most likely to be lacking in integrated systems under trees. Tree prunings can also be fed to animals, but this can only be done during certain periods of the year so as not to interfere with the maximum benefit to the main crop.

Manure and urine from the animals return mineral nutrients and organic matter to the soil. Since it is most likely that in all integrated systems the animals will spend a considerable amount of time inside barns, it is important that the excreta is returned to the plantation as this will contribute to the sustainability of the system and will reduce or eliminate the need for chemical fertilizers. The additional minerals provided in the supplementation partially enter the nutrient cycle of the integrated system via animal excretions.

The sheep owners are allowed to collect the forage under the coffee trees on the condition that they give a certain amount of sheep manure to each tree. Both the plantation managers and the sheep owners benefit from this arrangement while the system becomes environmentally friendly and sustainable.

Constraints of integrated systems There are several limiting factors in integrating livestock with perennial crops. One of the most important considerations is the possible damage to young trees or to the bark of adult trees. The size of the trees should determine when grazing animals enter the system. In the cut-and-carry system, however, tree size is not as critical. Proper animal management can substantially reduce or eliminate damage to bark by controlling grazing times and areas, by providing supplementary feeding, including minerals, and by removing horns and antlers from the animals.

The confinement of males during mating seasons would not only encourage controlled mating, it would also prevent damage to trees. In modern rubber plantations with improved clones and agricultural techniques, trees grow very fast and light penetration is reduced considerably in a few years, preventing the growth of most species. The long life span of tropical plantations permits various degrees of animal integration during the different stages of the tree production cycle.

Young and old plantations allow more light penetration and thus favour forage growth. There have been some reports of increases in rodent populations where there are legume cover crops.

On one occasion, mice caused considerable damage to orange tree crowns when their numbers grew as a result of the more favourable habitat under a cover crop of Pueraria phaseoloides Brache, , personal communication. Many large plantations in Southeast Asia still prohibit any sort of animal integration, including cut-and-carry systems, not so much because of the impact of the animals, but more to prevent the presence of people who pilfer plantation products and cause damage to trees when gathering fuelwood.

Meat and Dairy Production

The size of the food challenge—and the associated environmental and economic challenges—depends on the scale of the increase in demand for crops and animal-based foods by midcentury. The food, land, and GHG mitigation gaps are derived from reasonable estimates of business-as-usual growth in demand for crops and livestock. Yet such levels of growth are not inevitable.

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Integration of livestock with perennial crops Modalities of integration Components of the integrated system Constraints of integrated systems Examples of integration Conclusions Bibliography M. The integration of livestock with perennial crops may also increase productivity per unit of land in a sustainable manner. Livestock have been associated with perennial crops in one way or another for a long time. Various domestic animals roaming around the backyard underneath fruit-trees is a common scene in tropical regions. It has also been a traditional practice in many areas of the world to use animals, especially sheep, to control weeds in plantations.

Import Animal Products

Photosensitivity in animals is defined as a severe dermatitis that results from a heightened reactivity of skin cells and associated dermal tissues upon their exposure to sunlight, following ingestion or contact with UV reactive secondary plant products. Photosensitivity occurs in animal cells as a reaction that is mediated by a light absorbing molecule, specifically in this case a plant-produced metabolite that is heterocyclic or polyphenolic. In sensitive animals, this reaction is most severe in non-pigmented skin which has the least protection from UV or visible light exposure. Photosensitization in a biological system such as the epidermis is an oxidative or other chemical change in a molecule in response to light-induced excitation of endogenous or exogenously-delivered molecules within the tissue. Photo-oxidation can also occur in the plant itself, resulting in the generation of reactive oxygen species, free radical damage and eventual DNA degradation. Similar cellular changes occur in affected herbivores and are associated with an accumulation of photodynamic molecules in the affected dermal tissues or circulatory system of the herbivore. Recent advances in our ability to identify and detect secondary products at trace levels in the plant and surrounding environment, or in organisms that ingest plants, have provided additional evidence for the role of secondary metabolites in photosensitization of grazing herbivores. This review outlines the role of unique secondary products produced by higher plants in the animal photosensitization process, describes their chemistry and localization in the plant as well as impacts of the environment upon their production, discusses their direct and indirect effects on associated animal systems and presents several examples of well-characterized plant photosensitization in animal systems. Plants and their associated microflora produce a vast assortment of natural products in their respective metabolomes. Many natural products do not appear to participate directly in plant growth and development, and in some cases their roles are not well understood.

Mexico – Export requirements for meat and poultry products

Generally, a USDA veterinary permit is needed for materials derived from animals or exposed to animal-source materials. Exceptions to this requirement are human and non-human primate tissues, serum, and blood. We also have information on animal products that do not require an import permit. Various other animal materials which require a permit include dairy products except butter and cheese , and meat products e.

The production of fur imposes significant adverse impacts on both the environment and human health. Far from being a natural resource, fur production is an intensely toxic and energy-consumptive process, with pelts being dipped in toxic chemical soups and animal waste runoff from fur factory farms polluting soil and waterways.

Fur farming is the practice of breeding or raising certain types of animals for their fur. Fur used from animals caught in the wild is not considered farmed fur, and is instead known as "wild fur". Other major producers include China, the Netherlands , Russia , and the U.

Importing animal furs and skins - export of fish

Douglas L. Hard V. Bannockburn, Illinois -USA.

Feeding the world in a sustainable way is one of our most pressing challenges in the coming decades. Meat plays a pivotal role in this. Meat is an important source of nutrition for many people around the world. Global demand for meat is growing: over the past 50 years, meat production has more than quadrupled. The world now produces more than million tonnes each year.

Fur farming

By continuing to use this site, you are agreeing to their use. At Zoetis, our work is guided by a simple vision — that our products, services and people will be the most valued by animal health customers around the world. Zoetis delivers quality medicines, vaccines and diagnostic products, which are complemented by genetic tests, biodevices and a range of services. Regulatory constraints and medical practices vary from country to country. Consequently, the information provided on the site in which you enter may not be suitable for use in your country. My Dashboard Profile Logout.

Several kinds of integrated agriculture systems, for example, livestock have been associated with perennial crops in one way or another for a long time. Undesirable plants, or weeds, become forage, and thus the basis for animal production. for forage varieties that can be planted under rubber trees for grazing sheep.

Wool geotextiles were formed from the meandrically arranged thick ropes and used as erosion control products. The geotextiles were installed in the experimental sites to protect the endangered slopes and the bank of ditches. Additionally, as a reinforcement of the soil, loose wool fibres were applied.

There’s a strong ethical case for wearing leather and fur

Fur clothing is clothing made of furry animal hides. Fur is one of the oldest forms of clothing, and is thought to have been widely used as hominids first expanded outside Africa. Some view fur as luxurious and warm; however, others reject it due to moral concerns for animal rights.

Fur clothing

Animal testing is not the only thing to look out for when buying vegan-friendly cosmetics and skincare products. Just to add to the confusion, some ingredients which can be derived from plants or animals have the same name - without the source identified i. This emollient is derived from sheep wool, and is a common ingredient in lip products balms, sticks, glosses , as well as hair products.

Stronger measures are in place at our borders to stop African swine fever from entering Australia. Have your say now.

This is the line of thinking that often prompts people to make decisions like giving up meat, or, in the case of clothing, refusing to wear any materials made from animals—specifically leather, fur, silk, pearls, wool, and feathers. Sadly, the possible ways that we can cause harm are seemingly infinite, and the chances of our doing so practically inescapable. And sometimes what seems like the simplest or most correct approach, when examined closely, is actually just another tricky thicket of moral quandaries. She travels around the world, meeting with leather crafters in Alaska, silk spinners and dyers in Japan, pearl cultivators in Mexico, and mink farmers and furriers in Denmark, among others.

14 Non-Vegan Ingredients To Look Out For In Make-Up And Beauty Products

Иди на площадь, взмолился он мысленно. Тень Гиральды падала на площадь, как срубленная гигантская секвойя. Халохот внимательно проследил взглядом всю ее длину. В дальнем конце три полоски света, прорываясь сквозь прорези, четкими прямоугольниками падали на брусчатку мостовой.

Один из прямоугольников вдруг закрыла чья-то тень.

Вся сцена напоминала некий извращенный вариант представления, посвященного празднику Хэллоуин. Хотя Стратмор и сожалел о смерти своего молодого сотрудника, он был уверен, что ее можно отнести к числу оправданных потерь. Фил Чатрукьян не оставил ему выбора.

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  1. Akinobei

    I think, you will come to the correct decision.