Production factory fiberglass and articles thereof
Proposed binder comprises polyester resin based on isophthalic acid, filler - a fire retardant in the form of nanopowder based on aragonite sand with crystal size of nm, hardening accelerator, hardening initiator and inhibitor. Said filler is modified by mechanical surface activation with further processing by organotitanates. The latter are used in amount of 0. Profile fiberglass very promising material.VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: World Amazing Motor Boat Build Process - Fastest Boats Build Factory Modern Technology
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Binder for glass-fiber material and pull-extruded section thereof
This invention relates to the field of large-diameter fiberglass-reinforced synthetic resin tanks which have diameters in the range of about 8 to about 60 feet and are capable of holding thousands of gallons of corrosive chemicals, etc.
In my prior U. The joints described in said patent were made entirely by hand lay-up and required much time and labor. In this connection it is emphasized that each joint must absolutely seal the liquid contents of the tank, which contents may be highly corrosive and under very substantial pressure. Furthermore, the joints must create sufficient axial strength and in some cases hoop strength at the abutted tank section ends to withstand the stresses created during the erection process and also the stresses caused by the stored liquid in the tank.
When hand lay-up of fiberglass cloth impregnated with synthetic bonding resin is the only means employed to form such joints, factors such as irregularities in the exact shapes and sizes of the sections become relatively unimportant.
However, it is emphasized that as stated such hand lay-up is a highly laborious operation requiring much skilled labor.
To supplant all or part of the hand lay-up method by a method which requires greatly less labor and also improves the quality of the tank, it is necessary to overcome the major problems created by the above-indicated irregularities in shapes and sizes.
In this connection it is emphasized that when tank sections are for example 40 feet in diameter, it becomes impractical or impossible to achieve perfect abutment, perfect cylindrical shapes, etc. Referring next to prior art other than applicant's own patent, it has been well known for many decades that joints between the ends of pipe sections, the components of small tanks or containers, etc.
However, relative to these small-diameter and substantially rigid elements, there exists none of the major problems which have been overcome by applicant, and there is no suggestion that such problems may be overcome--with surprisingly beneficial results--as has been accomplished by applicant.
In accordance with the present invention, no hand lay-up is employed on at least one side the exterior or the interior of each joint. Instead, an annular chamber is defined adjacent the abutted ends of the tank sections by means including a joint ring, and synthetic bonding resin is introduced into the annular chamber for flow around the tank to complete the joint.
Stated more specifically, each joint means on the exterior of the tank is a cylindrical hoop formed of fiberglass and synthetic resin, such hoop being exteriorly adjacent the section ends. Synthetic resin "putty" is employed to seal and bond the upper and lower edges of the joint hoop to the exterior surfaces of the tank sections. Large amounts of synthetic bonding resin are then introduced into the resulting annulus at at least one point about the circumference of the tank, and a vent hole is provided to permit escape of air.
On the interior of the tank, the joint means comprises a strip of corrosion-resistant fiberglass-reinforced synthetic resin. The edges of the strip are angular flanges which abut against the corrosion barrier layer that is present on the interior surface of each tank section. Synthetic resin, one which is compatible with the corrosion barrier layer, is then introduced into the annulus to thus complete the joint and maintain a highly effective corrosion-prevention construction, one whereby the liquid contained in the tank only contacts a primary laminate instead of a hand lay-up joint.
The method further comprises important steps relative to mounting of at least the exterior joint ring or hoop. Such joint ring is attached to a tank section in spaced relationship above the lower edge thereof and with sufficient radial clearance to insure against binding.
The tank section, with the joint ring attached thereto, is then lowered onto another tank section and maintained in alignment by removable guide members. Stop means are provided on the lower tank section below the upper edge thereof, and the abutted ends of the sections are sealed together by means of synthetic resin "putty. The putty is then employed to create the seals and bonds between the upper and lower joint ring edges and the tank section walls, following which the resin-introduction step is performed as stated above.
The above-cited U. Referring first to FIG. Thus, an upper section or module 10 has previously been joined at a joint 11 to a top or cover 12, and the joined elements 10, 12 are being suspended by hoist or cable means 13 and lugs 14 over an additional tank section or module 15 which is supported on a concrete pad The various tank sections or modules 10 and 15, etc.
There will next be described the method of forming a greatly improved joint between sections 10 and Although the method is only described relative to one of the joints, it is to be understood that the same method is employed to form the above-indicated joint 11 and each other circumferential joint in the tank. Referring to FIGS. Such ring is a continuous hoop having a cylindrical shape, and having an inner diameter which is just sufficiently large to prevent substantial binding during lowering of the joint ring as described below.
As one example, the clearance between the inner surface 18 FIG. It is to be understood that this example is given by way of illustration only, not limitation, and that the clearance may be somewhat larger for larger-diameter tanks and somewhat smaller for smaller-diameter tanks. Because of the presence of guide members 19 described in the cited patent on the upper portion of the lower tank section 15, the lower edge 21 FIG.
The ring 17 is temporarily held in its position spaced above edge 22 as by tack bonds indicated at Such bonds are so made as to uniformly distribute the clearance about the circumference of the tank section, and may be made by means of thermosetting "putty" namely, a thermosetting synthetic bonding resin having a suitable filler therein which produces a thixotropic putty.
Joint ring 17, and other joint rings employed in performing the method, are so made as to provide the requisite axial and circumferential strengths. They are made of fiberglass-reinforced synthetic bonding resin and may for example be wound on a mold as described relative to FIG. Preferably, the joint ring 17 has substantial numbers of axial as well as circumferential fibers and therefore may usually be substantially thinner than is the wall of the tank section.
It is pointed out that for all joints except the one between the lowermost tank section and the tank bottom not shown , the joint ring 17 and corresponding joint rings are formed primarily to create axial vertical strength. No great hoop strength is required for such joints, since the adjacent tank walls are continuously reinforced by fiberglass and therefore create much hoop strength in and of themselves.
Relative to the lowermost of the joints, hoop strength becomes of major importance since the tank bottom shown at 15 in FIGS. Thus, for at least the bottom joint, the thickness of the joint ring may be equal to that of the bottom tank section.
It is also pointed out that the tank sections or modules become progressively less thick from the bottom section to the top, as shown, due to the different amounts of liquid pressure present in the tank. Thus, as stated, the first steps of the present method comprise providing the joint ring 17, tacking it onto tank section 10 at some convenient location, and employing hoist means 13, 14 to lift the combination to a position above the next tank section as shown in FIG.
The next step in the method comprises lowering the various suspended elements until bottom edge 22 seats on the upper edge 25 of lower section During such lowering, edge 22 is guided by elements 19 so that there will be a butt relationship between edges 22 and As the next steps in the method, the described putty is employed to seal the continuous circumferential joint between edges 22 and 25, following which the guide means 19 are removed by removing the bolts and nuts associated therewith.
The bolt holes are also plugged by the putty. Furthermore, either at this time or previously at a separate location, stop means 28 in the form of suitable lugs are or have previously been secured to the exterior surface of lower section 15 as by means of the putty.
Sufficient numbers of stop means 28 are provided to effect support of the joint ring 17, being so located as to support the joint ring at a location where it is approximately half above the abutted edges 22, 25 and half therebeneath. Thus, the joint ring is in straddling relationship relative to the abutted ends of the tank sections.
Typically, each ring 17 is about one foot high in a tank 40 feet in diameter. As the next step in the method, the tack bonds 23 are broken to cause joint ring 17 to drop onto stop means 28, as shown in FIG.
Thereafter, as shown at the right in FIG. Stated otherwise, continuous fillet bonds 31 are provided as shown in section at the right of FIG. The bonds and seals 31 are so made that the clearance is substantially uniformly distributed about the circumference of tank sections 10 and To achieve this result, small wedges not shown are temporarily mounted in annulus 32 in spaced relationship about the circumference of the tank.
After the putty forming the fillet bonds 31 is cured sufficiently to insure that there will be no leakage out of annulus 32, thermosetting synthetic bonding resin is introduced into such annulus in the manner next described. The vent hole 34 is provided adjacent the upper edge of ring 17 so that venting of air may be maximized. A suitable pump means, represented schematically at 36 in FIG. The resin thus pumped enters through intake opening 33 and passes in both directions around the tank through annulus If the rate of introduction is low, the resin seeks its own level in the annulus and then gradually rises.
If the rate of injection is sufficiently high, as is preferred, the "front" or leading portions of the two forwardly advancing masses of synthetic resin act as pistons to expel air toward vent hole 34 from which the air vents.
As an example, the two moving fronts of resin will reach points "A" FIG. The composition of the resin the type and amount of catalyst is caused to be such that no substantial setting or curing will occur until the resin passes clear through the annulus 32 to the vent opening 34 and starts to emanate therefrom.
At that time, the pump means 36 is stopped and openings 33, 34 are plugged. The result is that substantially the entire annulus is filled with the resin, which resin is indicated at Furthermore, the amount of air entrapment within the annulus is very small.
The amount of resin employed to fill annulus 38 may be great, for example far in excess of pounds for large-diameter tanks. The amount of time required to make the joint is reduced to a small fraction of that required by prior-art hand lay-up methods. Despite this extreme reduction in time, with vastly reduced labor, the quality of the joint is superior to that achieved by the hand lay-up method. It is possible for the above-described method, relative to the connection of tank modules or sections 10 and 15 to each other, to be performed relative to the inside interior surfaces of sections 10 and 15 instead of relative to the outside surfaces thereof.
Furthermore, it is possible for the method to be employed on the exterior of the tank as described and hand lay-up to be performed on the interior of the tank adjacent the abutted ends of the tank sections. Preferably, however, the described method is employed relative to the outside of the tank and the method next to be described is performed relative to the inside in order to maintain to the greatest possible extent the continuity of the corrosion barrier on the inside.
Before proceeding with a detailed description of the making of the preferred corrosion-barrier joint on the inside of the tank, at each tank joint between sections 10, 15 and others, reference will be made to the difference between "primary laminates" and other laminates.
A "primary laminate" is, in the present art, a layer of fiberglass-reinforced synthetic resin which is formed on a mold. The surface which is formed on a mold can, inherently, be smoother the mold surface being very smooth than a surface which is not and, being smoother, will have less surface area subject to corrosive attack. Therefore, it is highly desirable that the element exposed to the corrosive liquid within the tank be a primary laminate, and that the mold-formed surface of the primary laminate face inwardly.
Referring particularly to FIG. Preferably, as shown, the width vertical dimension of joint strip 41 is approximately the same as that of the joint ring Strip 41 has a body 42 which is cylindrical in shape after mounting of the strip to the tank, and has upper and lower flanges 43, 44 which project outwardly at an angle such as, for example, 45 degrees from the upper and lower edges of the body. Body 42 and its flanges 43 and 44 are formed integrally on a smooth mold in such relationship that those surfaces which face the interior of the tank to the left as shown in FIG.
In other words, the left facing surfaces of elements , as viewed in FIG. Joint strip 41 is preferably not a continuous hoop until it is mounted but instead is formed into a roll for shipment and then placed in the interior of the tank. The strip is then unrolled and mounted in the position shown in FIG. The resin not only effects mounting but also continuous sealing of the annulus.
The ends of the strip are butted to each other and bonded together by the same resin which is corrosion resistant and compatible with the corrosion barrier layer Each layer 46 is, as described in the cited patent, formed on a mold.
Referring to FIG. This resin is injected through an injection opening 51, and air is vented through a vent opening 52, these being on diametrically opposite sides of the tank as shown in FIGS.
When the rate of pumping is sufficiently great, the resin flows in both directions around the annulus 49, reaching points "B" substantially simultaneously FIG. When the resin starts to flow out the vent opening, pumping is stopped and the inlet and vent openings are plugged.
The result is that the annulus 49 is completely filled with resin 53 which is the corrosion-resistance equivalent of each corrosion barrier layer Furthermore, the left-facing surfaces of FIG. Tendency toward corrosion is thus minimized, and leakage is rendered substantially impossible.
The exterior and interior portions of the joint between tank sections 10, 15 and of other tank joints may be made substantially simultaneously, or the work may be performed on the exterior of the tank at a different time as that performed relative to the interior. In any event, there results a very strong, corrosion resistant joint having the major benefits of minimum labor and time necessary for formation, maximum resistance to corrosion, high strength, etc.
Synthetic Rubber Manufacturing Process
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JMRT provides an international medium for the publication of theoretical and experimental studies related to Metallurgy, Materials and Minerals research and technology. Materials - A2. The Impact Factor measures the average number of citations received in a particular year by papers published in the journal during the two receding years. SRJ is a prestige metric based on the idea that not all citations are the same.
CN106587659A - Glass fiber impregnating compound and application thereof - Google Patents
Establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing alkalies and chlorine. Establishments primarily engaged in mining natural alkalies are classified in Mining, Industry Alkalies, not produced at mines Caustic potash Caustic soda Chlorine compressed or liquefied Potassium carbonate Potassium hydroxide Sal soda washing soda Soda ash not produced at mines Sodium bicarbonate not produced at mines Sodium carbonate soda ash not produced at mines Sodium hydroxide caustic soda Washing soda sal soda. Establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing industrial gases including organic for sale in compressed, liquid, and solid forms. Establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing fluorine and sulfur dioxide are classified in Industry ; those manufacturing household ammonia are classified in Industry ; those manufacturing other ammonia are classified in Industry ; those manufacturing chlorine are classified in Industry ; and those manufacturing fluorocarbon gases are classified in Industry Distributors of industrial gases and establishments primarily engaged in shipping liquid oxygen are classified in Wholesale Trade, Industry Acetylene Argon Carbon dioxide Dry ice solid carbon dioxide Gases, industrial: compressed, liquefied, or solid Helium Hydrogen Neon Nitrogen Nitrous oxide Oxygen, compressed and liquefied. Establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing inorganic pigments.
Patents Assigned to Ecology Coatings, Inc. Coated Substrates and Methods of Preparing the Same. Publication number: Abstract: Disclosed herein are coated articles and methods of preparing the same. Type: Application.
Over 5 thousand business entities operate in the town. Krosno is a major centre of industry and services with a great variety of branches. Our city is ranked high among business friendly cities and regularly gets the highest marks in investment attractiveness reports prepared for the Polish Investment and Trade Agency.
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The present invention relates to wetting agent field, more particularly to a kind of glass fiber infiltration agent and application thereof. Sheet molding compound SMC , is a kind of moulding compound of dry method manufacture unsaturated polyester resin glass fiber reinforced plastics product, and it is 60 At the initial stage in age, taken the lead in releasing first by Bayer A. Or so nineteen sixty-five U. With people the decorative appearance of SMC products is required it is more and more diversified, more and more strictly. Inside and outside homogeneous color Adjust, splendid appearance, rich color, SMC products fast in colour have become current SMC researchs and the Main way applied One of. At present conventional coloring level SMC yarn disclosure satisfy that the requirement of general product, but, for engineering is with big part SMC products, particularly complex structure, with the SMC products that height is molded compared with great depth, then mobility to glass fibre, open Fibre, chopped dispersing uniformity, mechanical performance and its surface property are put forward higher requirement.
Classifying plastics for import and export
Synthetic Rubber Manufacturing Process. How Does Rubber Extrusion Work? The rubber extrusion process begins with a rubber compound being fed into an extruder. KNB is a synthetic rubber product manufactured by emulsion-polymerizing acrylonitrile and butadiene in low temperature and has great oil and chemical resistance. As the styrene content is increased over 45 weight percent, the product becomes increasingly more plastic. The RMA states that about five gallons of oil are used as the feedstock, while another two gallons are used in the tire manufacturing process itself.
This application is a Division of U. This invention relates to improvements to cementitious boards useful in building construction, such as cement and gypsum sheathing for EIF systems, shaft walls, tile backers and fire walls. Cementitious boards useful in the construction industry are known to contain inorganic, hydraulically setting material, such as Portland cement or gypsum. Hydraulic gypsum and cement, once set, have very little tensile strength and are usually reinforced with facing materials which improve the resistance to tensile and torsional loads. This has been the basis for using paper facing on conventional gypsum wall board and glass fiber scrim in cement boards.
Water power projects license applications for Endangered and threatened species permit. Justice Department. Part II.
Это мощное тело принадлежало Грегу Хейлу. ГЛАВА 58 - Меган - девушка моего друга Эдуардо! - крикнул панк Беккеру. -Держись от нее подальше. - Где она? - Сердце Беккера неистово колотилось.
Мостовая стремительно убегала назад в нескольких дюймах внизу. Он окончательно протрезвел. Ноги и плечо ныли от боли. Беккер с трудом поднялся на ноги, выпрямился и заглянул в темное нутро салона. Среди неясных силуэтов впереди он увидел три торчащие косички. Красная, белая и синяя.
Не знал он только одного - что в его планы вмешается судьба. В феврале того года, когда Энсею исполнилось двенадцать, его приемным родителям позвонили из токийской фирмы, производящей компьютеры, и предложили их сыну-калеке принять участие в испытаниях новой клавиатуры, которую фирма сконструировала для детей с физическими недостатками.