Production product sweet foods, semi-finished products of flour products and milk concentrates
Jensen, J. Graham and Donald L. Graham, which were revised by Donald L. The term food industries covers a series of industrial activities directed at the processing, conversion, preparation, preservation and packaging of foodstuffs see table The raw materials used are generally of vegetable or animal origin and produced by agriculture, farming, breeding and fishing. This article provides an overview of the complex of food industries.VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: The Journey: Wheat into Flour - Part 1
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The valorization of food wastes and byproducts has become a major subject of research to improve the sustainability of the food chain. This narrative review provides an overview of the current trends in the use of food byproducts in the development of dairy foods.
We revised the latest data on food loss generation, the group of byproducts most used as ingredients in dairy product development, and their function within the food matrix. Overall, 50 studies supported the tremendous potential of the application of food byproducts mainly those from plant-origin in dairy foods as ingredients. There are promising results for their utilization as food additives for technological purposes, and as sources of bioactive compounds to enhance the health-promoting properties of dairy products.
However, food technologists, nutritionists and sensory scientists should work together to face the challenge of improving the palatability and consumer acceptance of these novel and sustainable dairy foods.
Sustainability presents both an opportunity and a challenge to the dairy sector. It is an opportunity, because the possibility of using food-processing byproducts for bioactive compound and nutrient extraction has created enormous scope for waste reduction and indirect income generation [ 1 ].
However, the challenge is to sustainably intensify the global food production system to enhance food security and nutrition without sacrificing the environment, and to render the concept of sustainable functional foods into a marketable product that is acceptable to consumers [ 2 , 3 ]. Compared to conventional foods, the development of functional components and technological solutions can be demanding and expensive, and needs of a tight strategy between research and business.
All this occurs in a context where functional food markets are continuously changing [ 5 , 6 ]. The purpose of this review is to summarize the research findings on the application of various food-processing byproducts used as a source of targeted compounds or as whole ingredients in the manufacturing of dairy foods. So far, most studies available on the valorization of agro-industrial food wastes focus on specific byproducts and their applications in different foods.
In this review, the focus is on dairy product development, and how byproducts can be used in their manufacturing to improve their technological and health-promoting properties. The present narrative review was conducted by a literature search consulting the PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus databases. The search was limited to English written articles published during the last 18 years, from January to July In addition, references of relevant reviews and original research articles were manually searched to find out more potential eligible studies.
Data from the FAO Food Balance Sheets regarding worldwide production and losses of the different food commodity groups for the most recent year available were accessed to study the latest state of global food loss generation. The selection of the papers to be included in the review was performed after a thorough study of their content by the authors.
The selection process resulted in the identification of 50 eligible studies which directly addressed the application of a food byproduct as an ingredient in a dairy matrix. Food waste is considered as part of food loss and refers to discarding or alternative non-food use of food that is safe and nutritious for human consumption along the food chain [ 7 ].
Food losses and waste represent an imbalance in the availability and accessibility dimensions in the global food system. Different multifaceted strategies have been proposed by the FAO Committee on Global Food Security to promote the development of a sustainable food system, including food byproduct valorization. In this sense, a reduction in food losses and waste could potentially lead to positive economic, social and environmental outcomes, improving food availability and accessibility, and enhancing a sustainable use of natural resources on which the future production of food depends [ 8 ].
The most recent Food Balance Sheets [ 9 ] indicate that fruits and vegetables presented the highest values of food losses along the food chain compared to the rest of the commodity groups: cereals, roots and tubers, oilseeds and pulses, meat, fish and seafood, and dairy products. Correspondingly, there has been increasing interest in using fruit and vegetable byproducts as novel ingredients in the development of foods, including dairy products.
This focus may be explained by several factors: their impact on the environment, their potential health-promoting phytochemical content, and the fact that plant-derived byproducts and losses mostly occur before household consumption, which makes them still available for reutilization.
Among fruit and vegetable byproducts, most research has been carried out using citrus and tomato side-streams as ingredients in dairy formulations Figure 1 , which means that efforts have been made to valorize byproducts from food groups that present some of the largest food losses [ 9 ].
In alone, It is evident that the amount of food loss is correlated to the amount of the food item produced, but the ratio of food loss within a production chain for a specific item can also help identify which foods are more susceptible to being lost. As seen in Figure 2 , bananas, plantains and pineapples have some of the highest loss rates among fruits and vegetables during storage and transportation.
This way, further strategies for food loss and waste reduction could focus on using byproducts from these foods as novel ingredients. Data obtained from the latest Food Balance Sheets, accessed in [ 9 ]. Byproducts from meat, fish and seafood contain high amounts of protein, which may be less interesting in dairy food manufacturing as they already contain this compound in their matrix. However, when protein has been needed, it has mostly been obtained from cheese whey, which is a saccharide and protein rich waste generated during cheese production [ 10 ].
Using a byproduct from the same industry as a food ingredient not only enhances the sustainability within the dairy industry, but also may translate into fewer sensory difficulties when developing the product due to the similarities of the food matrices.
The exploitation of byproducts generated during food processing or discarded produce as a source of functional compounds and their application in other foods is very much desirable as part of a waste management system [ 11 ].
In this review, we divide the applications of food byproducts in dairy foods in two categories: those with technical purposes, which include the improvement of shelf life, safety, stability, sensory quality, etc. A summary of the applications so far proposed is shown in Table 1.
One of the major emerging technologies is the application of food byproducts as natural additives. The implementation of this approach could serve a double purpose. As a waste reduction measure, it would enhance sustainability and increase industrial profitability.
In addition, it would be possible to fulfill the requirements of consumers concerned about chemical residues in their foods that look for clean-label and naturally-preserved healthy foods [ 60 ]. The addition of food additives is regulated under Codex Alimentarius guidelines.
Therefore, food byproducts used as natural additives must consider current regulations and undertake proper authorization if necessary. In this section, we summarize the ongoing research carried out to apply food byproducts as additives in dairy products. The Codex General Standard for Food Additives defines antioxidants as food additives which prolong the shelf-life of foods by protecting against deterioration caused by oxidation [ 61 ].
In dairy products, lipid oxidation produces fatty acid hydroperoxides, an intermediary tasteless and odorless compound which can further react with fatty acids leading to the formation of secondary lipid oxidation products and protein damage [ 62 ].
These reactions result in the production of off-flavors in milk and dairy products, which are described as cardboardy and metallic [ 63 ]. These off-flavors can be detected in raw or pasteurized milk, in any dairy product that has not been flavored, and especially in high-fat products such as butter or ice-cream.
Therefore, changes in the properties and palatability of these products can lead to a decrease of consumer acceptability and confidence in dairy products [ 12 ]. The susceptibility of milk lipids to oxidation depends on several factors: intrinsic factors, extrinsic factors and their interrelation [ 62 ]. Intrinsic factors include the composition of the milk system, which is constituted by a complex mixture of pro-oxidants transition metals and antioxidants tocopherols, uric acid, ascorbic acid , whose relative concentration in milk are related to seasonal, physiological and nutritional effects on the cow [ 64 ].
Extrinsic factors that affect lipid oxidation refer to environmental and physical factors light exposure, temperature, pH, water activity, etc. This way, the addition of antioxidants in milk is one of the main methods used for preventing and retarding lipid oxidation.
The most commonly applied antioxidants in dairy foods, when their use is not explicitly excluded by legislation, are ascorbates and tocopherols [ 66 ].
As an alternative to conventional antioxidants, different bioactive compounds recovered from food byproducts have been used to prevent lipid oxidation of dairy foods and increase their shelf life.
These efforts have been made especially in high-fat content dairy foods, such as cheese and butter, but also in yogurts and other dairy products such as milk drinks fortified in omega-3 fatty acids, which have a higher risk of lipid deterioration. Agaricus blazei mushroom residue has been added to milk fortified in omega-3 fatty acids, which decreased lipid oxidation when subjected to photooxidation [ 12 ].
Wine grape pomace also proved to delay lipid oxidation in yogurt [ 29 ], whereas grape seed and pomegranate peel extracts have been applied effectively to protect against lipid oxidation in cheese during storage [ 56 ]. However, during cold storage, autoxidation is the main cause of deterioration, which depends on the copper present in the product [ 67 ].
Antioxidants from tomato processing byproducts were used as agents against lipid peroxidation in conventional and traditional Tunisian butter, showing a protective action during 4 months of cold storage [ 11 , 52 ]. A protective effect against lipid oxidation during 3 months of cold storage was also shown by adding almond peel extract in whey butter, which contains a higher concentration of unsaturated fatty acids that are more vulnerable to oxidative breakdown [ 51 ].
The addition of almond peel extract allowed whey butter storage up to 3 months which showed no significant differences in acceptability scores against milk butter [ 51 ]. It is relevant to consider the dosage of the extract added to the food product, as it can affect both the antioxidant behavior of the extract and the final sensory acceptability of the food.
The addition of byproduct extracts can lead to either positive or negative effects on the sensory properties of the final product, depending on the dosage, the type of recovered byproduct compounds and the food matrix in which it is incorporated. Different byproduct extracts, such as grape and pomegranate seed extracts, decreased fat deterioration in sheep yogurt, but their sensory profile was significantly less acceptable than the control samples immediately after yogurt manufacture and after 14 days of storage [ 39 ].
Preservatives are food additives that prolong food shelf life by protecting against deterioration caused by microorganisms. Different types of preservatives include: antimicrobial antimould antirope and antimycotic agents, antimicrobial synergists, bacteriophage control agents and fungistatic agents [ 61 ].
Food byproducts have been used as preservative agents with antimicrobial activity to ensure that manufactured dairy foods remain unspoiled and safe during their whole shelf-life. Several studies have shown that food byproducts can be used against spoilage and pathogenic bacteria without interfering with the viability of starter cultures and other microorganisms involved in fermentation processes, ensuring that the quality of the developed products is maintained.
In cheese, there is less information on the effect of byproduct addition on molds, yeasts and bacteria during ripening, even though they are essential for the correct development of cheese flavor and texture [ 69 , 70 ].
Winemaking byproducts have been added in Toma-like and cheddar cheese products, showing that their addition did not interfere with starter and nonstarter bacteria nor with cheese proteolysis [ 59 ].
Therefore, there is an opportunity to study whether the addition of recovered compounds interferes during ripening in other cheese types that involve the growth of different molds in the cheese rind soft cheese, natural rind cheese, etc. Milk spoilage is primarily due to the growth of psychrophilic microorganisms that trigger lipolysis and proteolysis reactions of milk fatty acids and proteins, respectively [ 71 ].
Lipolysis of milk lipids to free fatty acids and partial glycerides contributes to the desirable flavor of milk and other dairy products, but when present in high concentrations, it can lead to the development of off-flavors. These are described as rancid, butyric, bitter, unclean, soapy and astringent [ 72 ]. Once lipolysis produces detectable off-flavors it is not possible to remove them from the product [ 73 ].
In addition, the hydrolysis of milk proteins produced by proteases from Pseudomonads, Aeromonads , Serratia and Bacillus spp. Milk spoilage is mediated by lipases that are naturally present in milk lipoprotein lipase or by lipases and proteases from psychrophilic bacterial contamination occurring during milking, storage and transportation that result in the destabilization of milk during cold storage [ 62 , 77 ].
One of the most important properties of these bacterial enzymes is their heat stability. This is because most of them can retain at least some of their activity after pasteurization or ultra-high temperature UHT treatment, even though bacteria are destroyed [ 63 , 78 ]. Quality issues and defects associated with excessive lipolysis in dairy products include rancid flavors and poor foaming capacity in pasteurized milk, rancid flavor due to increasing free fatty acids in UHT milk, and spoilage of milk powder during storage.
Flavor defects in cheese and butter can be caused by lipolysis before or after manufacture, whereas yogurt is less susceptible to lipolysis defects due to a combination of factors such as low pH, low storage temperature and short shelf life [ 73 ]. Although different applications of recovered food byproducts are being studied to valorize them as novel food ingredients, there is a lack of information on the effect of the addition of these extracts in the lipolysis or proteolysis of dairy foods.
This should be considered, as some additives, such as pepper, promote lipase activity in cheese, producing soapy and rancid off-flavors [ 73 ]. To our knowledge, there is only one study that described the effect of byproducts on the hydrolysis of lipids in dairy foods.
Tomato processing byproducts were used in butter and ice-cream to prevent lipolysis during 4 months in refrigerated storage [ 11 ]. A significant decrease in the liberation of free fatty acids was observed in lycopene added butter after 3 months compared to control butter, suggesting that this extract may exert a protective action against lipolysis.
The milk matrix is an ideal media for microorganism proliferation. This also includes pathogenic bacteria, where mycobacteria, Brucella sp. The origin of pathogen proliferation can be either endogenous from udder infection or exogenous contact with contaminated environment [ 79 ]. Milk heat treatment, such as pasteurization or UHT processes, kill pathogenic bacteria. However, inadequate pasteurization or post-pasteurization contamination can cause milk re-contamination if sanitation measures in the processing plant are not sufficient, leading to food poisoning incidences [ 74 ].
Outbreaks of food-borne illnesses have been mainly linked to the consumption of raw milk or products made of unpasteurized milk such as raw milk cheeses, whose consumption is continuously growing [ 81 ]. Besides not using heat treatment, traditional raw milk cheese producers may not use starter cultures in their elaboration process, which increases the risk of pathogen multiplication as the competitive activity of the lactic acid starter is eliminated [ 82 ]. In this sense, the addition of preservatives to dairy products is principally used in cheese.
Preservatives may be added during cheese production and ripening to all the edible part of the cheese or only for rind treatment [ 66 , 83 ]. The number of dairy food infection outbreaks due to pathogen contamination of other dairy foods is less common, although some cases have been reported for yogurt and fermented milks [ 84 ].
The invention relates to the food industry, in particular to a confectionery, and can be used for the preparation of wafer confectionery products, based on molded wafers with filling, which can be glazed with chocolate icing and coated with a milk caramel mass sprinkled with. The known "method for the production of sweets glazed with chocolate icing," three ", which is a body glazed with chocolate icing, made of a waffle shell, in the form of a hollow three-dimensional geometric figure, molded from two pairwise connected blanks in the form of hemispheres, and filling from fondant candy mass made from granulated sugar; coconut oil; molasses; milk powder; cocoa powder; cognac; essences; wheat flour; maize starch; vegetable oil; soy flour; salts; food soda; lecithin. The closest in technical essence is a wafer confectionery product containing a wafer shell made of semi-finished flour made in the form of a hollow volumetric geometric figure with a flat base, the wall thickness of which is 1. The disadvantages include the low organoleptic properties of the products in terms of taste due to the use of traditional fillings and the absence of dusting, which limits the range of confectionery products of this type.
Stabilizing system was added to the final product formulas as a mixture of corn starch and guar gum. All produced cheese sauces treatments were acceptable. Cheese sauce UF-RC treatment showed the highest acceptability. Cheese sauce is a novel cheese product now-a-days, not only for being an attractive appetizer but also for being perceived as a first course or a side dish and rather as an ingredient entire, meant to stand by itself.
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Flow-mechanized production line cakes "Eclair". Your email address will not be published. Save my name, email and website address in this browser for my subsequent comments. Baked cake mix determines the group and cakes, and is the basis of their classification and one of the main semi-finished products.
Bakels Multiseed Bread Concentrate (Low GI)
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Color Additive Status List. Inclusion of a substance in the Food Additive Status list does not necessarily represent its legal regulatory status. The regulations for food additives in 21 Code of Federal Regulations need to be consulted. It is possible that mistakes or omissions could have occurred. Additionally, there may be cases where the agency has offered interpretations concerning specific provisions of the regulations.
U.S. Food and Drug Administration
Dates are ambiguous in the sense that, depending on the stage of maturity, they can either be classified as a fruit, comparable to any other fruit consumed between meals, or alternatively, as a food source as part of the daily meal, in particular in the rural areas of the date producing countries. Though not a true staple food by definition like rice, potatoes or cassava, dates, on occasion, have been forced to play this role for lack of other staples. In recent times, either because of a decreasing demand for table dates or in an effort to make better use of off-grade fruit, there has been a renewed interest in the date as a food source, not necessarily as a staple food, but rather as a component in food preparations like sweets, confectionery, baking products, institutional feeding and health foods. In this Chapter a review is made of the use or potential use of dates in combination with other foodstuffs. Only the use of the whole date flesh is considered and therefore all quality standards as imposed on whole dates, except perhaps for blemishes and other external defects, are applicable. In Chapter III: "Derived Date Fruit Products" the use of dates will be extended to a group of products for which the initial quality demands, in particular with regard to foreign matter and insects, are less stringent, because the foreign matter can be effectively removed during processing and will have no effect on the quality of the derived product. Although demarcations are not always sharp, date products and preparations, based on the use of the whole date flesh, can be classified under: sweets, preserves, condiments, breakfast foods and desserts. In order to follow somewhat the historical developments in this field they are reviewed as home preparations, semi-finished products, and ready-for-use date products after which research work on new date products will be listed.
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Food Byproducts as Sustainable Ingredients for Innovative and Healthy Dairy Foods
The valorization of food wastes and byproducts has become a major subject of research to improve the sustainability of the food chain. This narrative review provides an overview of the current trends in the use of food byproducts in the development of dairy foods. We revised the latest data on food loss generation, the group of byproducts most used as ingredients in dairy product development, and their function within the food matrix.
Our Dairy Products. Milk Powders and Derivatives. Black Lion Trading offers you flexible solutions by delivering milk powders and derivatives in a variety of compositions, origins and packaging according to your requirements. Below you can find specific information per product and the product specifications from our most requested varieties.
Он был уверен, что чрезмерный нажим не приведет ни к чему хорошему. - Расслабьтесь, мистер Беккер. Если будет ошибка, мы попробуем снова, пока не добьемся успеха. - Плохой совет, мистер Беккер, - огрызнулся Джабба.
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Машина завертелась в облаке выхлопных газов совсем рядом с мотоциклом Беккера. Теперь обе машины, потеряв управление, неслись к стене ангара. Беккер отчаянно давил на тормоз, но покрышки потеряли всякое сцепление с полом. Спереди на него быстро надвигалась стена. Такси все еще продолжало крутиться, и в ожидании столкновения он сжался в комок.
Алгоритм, не подающийся грубой силе, никогда не устареет, какими бы мощными ни стали компьютеры, взламывающие шифры. Когда-нибудь он станет мировым стандартом. Сьюзан глубоко вздохнула.