Space industrial civil aircraft, helicopters, gliders and aeronautics
The U. This paper reviews the government and industry response to four specific areas of air tour safety concern: surveillance of flight operations, pilot factors, regulatory standardization, and maintenance quality assurance. It concludes that the government and industry have successfully addressed many of these tenet issues, most notably by: advancing the operations surveillance infrastructure through implementation of en route, ground-based, and technological surveillance methods; developing Aeronautical Decision Making and cue-based training programs for air tour pilots; consolidating federal air tour regulations under Part ; and developing public-private partnerships for raising maintenance operating standards and improving quality assurance programs. However, opportunities remain to improve air tour safety by: increasing the number and efficiency of flight surveillance programs; addressing pilot fatigue with more restrictive flight hour limitations for air tour pilots; ensuring widespread uptake of maintenance quality assurance programs, especially among high-risk operators not currently affiliated with private air tour safety programs; and eliminating the mile exception allowing Part 91 operators to conduct commercial air tours without the safety oversight required of Part operators. Scheduled air carriers, including major airlines, operate under the governance of PartVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Why can't we fly a plane into space ?
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Moscow Aviation Institute
An aircraft is a vehicle that is able to fly by gaining support from the air. It counters the force of gravity by using either static lift or by using the dynamic lift of an airfoil ,  or in a few cases the downward thrust from jet engines.
Common examples of aircraft include airplanes , helicopters , airships including blimps , gliders , paramotors and hot air balloons. The human activity that surrounds aircraft is called aviation. The science of aviation, including designing and building aircraft, is called aeronautics. Crewed aircraft are flown by an onboard pilot , but unmanned aerial vehicles may be remotely controlled or self-controlled by onboard computers. Aircraft may be classified by different criteria, such as lift type, aircraft propulsion , usage and others.
Each of the two World Wars led to great technical advances. Consequently, the history of aircraft can be divided into five eras:. Aerostats use buoyancy to float in the air in much the same way that ships float on the water. They are characterized by one or more large cells or canopies, filled with a relatively low-density gas such as helium , hydrogen , or hot air , which is less dense than the surrounding air.
When the weight of this is added to the weight of the aircraft structure, it adds up to the same weight as the air that the craft displaces. Small hot-air balloons, called sky lanterns , were first invented in ancient China prior to the 3rd century BC and used primarily in cultural celebrations, and were only the second type of aircraft to fly, the first being kites , which were first invented in ancient China over two thousand years ago.
See Han Dynasty. The advent of powered balloons, called dirigible balloons, and later of rigid hulls allowing a great increase in size, began to change the way these words were used. Huge powered aerostats, characterized by a rigid outer framework and separate aerodynamic skin surrounding the gas bags, were produced, the Zeppelins being the largest and most famous. There were still no fixed-wing aircraft or non-rigid balloons large enough to be called airships, so "airship" came to be synonymous with these aircraft.
Then several accidents, such as the Hindenburg disaster in , led to the demise of these airships. Nowadays a "balloon" is an unpowered aerostat and an "airship" is a powered one. A powered, steerable aerostat is called a dirigible. Sometimes this term is applied only to non-rigid balloons, and sometimes dirigible balloon is regarded as the definition of an airship which may then be rigid or non-rigid. Non-rigid dirigibles are characterized by a moderately aerodynamic gasbag with stabilizing fins at the back.
These soon became known as blimps. During World War II , this shape was widely adopted for tethered balloons ; in windy weather, this both reduces the strain on the tether and stabilizes the balloon. The nickname blimp was adopted along with the shape.
In modern times, any small dirigible or airship is called a blimp, though a blimp may be unpowered as well as powered. Heavier-than-air aircraft, such as airplanes , must find some way to push air or gas downwards, so that a reaction occurs by Newton's laws of motion to push the aircraft upwards. This dynamic movement through the air is the origin of the term aerodyne.
Aerodynamic lift involving wings is the most common, with fixed-wing aircraft being kept in the air by the forward movement of wings, and rotorcraft by spinning wing-shaped rotors sometimes called rotary wings. A wing is a flat, horizontal surface, usually shaped in cross-section as an aerofoil. To fly, air must flow over the wing and generate lift.
A flexible wing is a wing made of fabric or thin sheet material, often stretched over a rigid frame. A kite is tethered to the ground and relies on the speed of the wind over its wings, which may be flexible or rigid, fixed, or rotary. With powered lift, the aircraft directs its engine thrust vertically downward. A pure rocket is not usually regarded as an aerodyne, because it does not depend on the air for its lift and can even fly into space ; however, many aerodynamic lift vehicles have been powered or assisted by rocket motors.
Rocket-powered missiles that obtain aerodynamic lift at very high speed due to airflow over their bodies are a marginal case. The forerunner of the fixed-wing aircraft is the kite. Whereas a fixed-wing aircraft relies on its forward speed to create airflow over the wings, a kite is tethered to the ground and relies on the wind blowing over its wings to provide lift.
Kites were the first kind of aircraft to fly, and were invented in China around BC. Much aerodynamic research was done with kites before test aircraft, wind tunnels , and computer modelling programs became available. The first heavier-than-air craft capable of controlled free-flight were gliders. A glider designed by George Cayley carried out the first true manned, controlled flight in The practical, powered, fixed-wing aircraft the airplane or aeroplane was invented by Wilbur and Orville Wright.
Besides the method of propulsion , fixed-wing aircraft are in general characterized by their wing configuration. The most important wing characteristics are:. A variable geometry aircraft can change its wing configuration during flight. A flying wing has no fuselage, though it may have small blisters or pods. The opposite of this is a lifting body , which has no wings, though it may have small stabilizing and control surfaces.
Wing-in-ground-effect vehicles are not considered aircraft. They "fly" efficiently close to the surface of the ground or water, like conventional aircraft during takeoff. An example is the Russian ekranoplan nicknamed the "Caspian Sea Monster". Man-powered aircraft also rely on ground effect to remain airborne with a minimal pilot power, but this is only because they are so underpowered—in fact, the airframe is capable of flying higher.
Rotorcraft, or rotary-wing aircraft, use a spinning rotor with aerofoil section blades a rotary wing to provide lift. Types include helicopters , autogyros , and various hybrids such as gyrodynes and compound rotorcraft. Helicopters have a rotor turned by an engine-driven shaft. The rotor pushes air downward to create lift.
By tilting the rotor forward, the downward flow is tilted backward, producing thrust for forward flight. Some helicopters have more than one rotor and a few have rotors turned by gas jets at the tips. Autogyros have unpowered rotors, with a separate power plant to provide thrust. The rotor is tilted backward. As the autogyro moves forward, air blows upward across the rotor, making it spin. This spinning increases the speed of airflow over the rotor, to provide lift.
Rotor kites are unpowered autogyros, which are towed to give them forward speed or tethered to a static anchor in high-wind for kited flight. Cyclogyros rotate their wings about a horizontal axis.
Compound rotorcraft have wings that provide some or all of the lift in forward flight. They are nowadays classified as powered lift types and not as rotorcraft. The largest aircraft by weight and largest regular fixed-wing aircraft ever built, as of [update] , is the Antonov An Mriya. That Ukrainian-built six-engine Russian transport of the s is 84 meters feet long, with an meter foot wingspan. It holds the world payload record, after transporting , pounds tons of goods, and has recently flown ton loads commercially.
Weighing in at somewhere between 1. The fastest recorded powered aircraft flight and fastest recorded aircraft flight of an air-breathing powered aircraft was of the NASA X A Pegasus , a scramjet -powered, hypersonic , lifting body experimental research aircraft, at Mach 9. The XA set that new mark, and broke its own world record of Mach 6.
On one flight it reached an altitude of , feet. The fastest known, production aircraft other than rockets and missiles currently or formerly operational as of are:. Gliders are heavier-than-air aircraft that do not employ propulsion once airborne.
Take-off may be by launching forward and downward from a high location, or by pulling into the air on a tow-line, either by a ground-based winch or vehicle, or by a powered "tug" aircraft. For a glider to maintain its forward air speed and lift, it must descend in relation to the air but not necessarily in relation to the ground.
Many gliders can "soar", i. The first practical, controllable example was designed and built by the British scientist and pioneer George Cayley , whom many recognise as the first aeronautical engineer. Common examples of gliders are sailplanes , hang gliders and paragliders. Balloons drift with the wind, though normally the pilot can control the altitude, either by heating the air or by releasing ballast, giving some directional control since the wind direction changes with altitude.
A wing-shaped hybrid balloon can glide directionally when rising or falling; but a spherically shaped balloon does not have such directional control. Kites are aircraft  that are tethered to the ground or other object fixed or mobile that maintains tension in the tether or kite line ; they rely on virtual or real wind blowing over and under them to generate lift and drag. Kytoons are balloon-kite hybrids that are shaped and tethered to obtain kiting deflections, and can be lighter-than-air, neutrally buoyant, or heavier-than-air.
Powered aircraft have one or more onboard sources of mechanical power, typically aircraft engines although rubber and manpower have also been used. Most aircraft engines are either lightweight reciprocating engines or gas turbines. Engine fuel is stored in tanks, usually in the wings but larger aircraft also have additional fuel tanks in the fuselage. Propeller aircraft use one or more propellers airscrews to create thrust in a forward direction. The propeller is usually mounted in front of the power source in tractor configuration but can be mounted behind in pusher configuration.
Variations of propeller layout include contra-rotating propellers and ducted fans. Many kinds of power plant have been used to drive propellers. Early airships used man power or steam engines. The more practical internal combustion piston engine was used for virtually all fixed-wing aircraft until World War II and is still used in many smaller aircraft.
Some types use turbine engines to drive a propeller in the form of a turboprop or propfan. Human-powered flight has been achieved, but has not become a practical means of transport. Unmanned aircraft and models have also used power sources such as electric motors and rubber bands. Jet aircraft use airbreathing jet engines , which take in air, burn fuel with it in a combustion chamber , and accelerate the exhaust rearwards to provide thrust.
Turbojet and turbofan engines use a spinning turbine to drive one or more fans, which provide additional thrust. An afterburner may be used to inject extra fuel into the hot exhaust, especially on military "fast jets".
Aviation is facing major challenges — continuing growth combined with environmental responsibility must jointly shape further development. DLR is developing solutions for the current and next generations of aeronautics technologies. In addition, with research expertise covering the entire air transport system, it is pursuing the goal of designing well-founded proposals for the generation after next and thus opening up new possibilities for air transport. DLR aeronautics research is networked at national, European and global levels.
General Aircraft Limited was a British aircraft manufacturer from its formation in to amalgamation with Blackburn Aircraft in to become Blackburn and General. Its main products were military gliders and light transport aircraft. Both firms were headed by Helmut J. Stieger, the Swiss inventor of the technique. GAL produced about 28 examples of the Monospar series of twin-engined light transport aircraft at Croydon Aerodrome between pand In October , both companies were re-capitalised by investment group British Pacific Trust, and were re-formed in a new company also named General Aircraft Limited. Also included in the new company were the assets of National Flying Services Ltd, the owner of London Air Park , plus adjoining industrial premises built in by Whitehead Aircraft Ltd. In early , the Crystal Croydon production facilities were transferred to the Hanworth site, near Feltham.
The U.S. Commercial Air Tour Industry: A Review of Aviation Safety Concerns
Women have been involved in aviation since its earliest days. From E. Lillian Todd , who designed and built aircraft in to Helen Richey , who became the first woman pilot for a U. At the close of the 20th century, astronaut Eileen Collins became the first female space shuttle commander. During the last two decades, the number of women involved in the aviation industry has steadily increased and women can be found in nearly every aviation occupation today.
The term aerospace is derived from the words aeronautics and spaceflight. The aerospace industry is engaged in the research, development, and manufacture of flight vehicles, including unpowered gliders and sailplanes see gliding , lighter-than-air craft see balloon ; airship , heavier-than-air craft both fixed-wing and rotary-wing; see airplane ; military aircraft , missiles see rocket and missile system , space launch vehicles , and spacecraft manned and unmanned. Also included among its concerns are major flight-vehicle subsystems such as propulsion and avionics aviation electronics and key support systems necessary for the testing, operation, and maintenance of flight vehicles. In addition, the industry is engaged in the fabrication of nonaerospace products and systems that make use of aerospace technology.
Airbus BelugaXL enters service, adding XL capacity to the fleet
An aircraft is a vehicle that is able to fly by gaining support from the air. It counters the force of gravity by using either static lift or by using the dynamic lift of an airfoil ,  or in a few cases the downward thrust from jet engines. Common examples of aircraft include airplanes , helicopters , airships including blimps , gliders , paramotors and hot air balloons.
Government Printing Office Bolero Ozon. The Code of Federal Regulations is a codification of the general and permanent rules published in the Federal Register by the Executive departments and agencies of the United States Federal Government. Aircraft accident liability insurance. Charter trips by U S scheduled air carriers. Charter rules for U S and foreign direct air car.
Yates to start full-rate production of 900kg cargo glider UAV
At Lake Constance, numerous companies will be displaying their latest products and innovations, covering the whole industry from ultralights and gliders to business jets, helicopters and electric aircraft as well as avionics and maintenance. Facebook LinkedIn Instagram. April 1 — 4, Toggle navigation. AERO History. Index of exhibitors Index of products Aircraft
Human beings have always wanted to fly. Qu e bec ers are no exception. Lesh made the first gliding flights in Canada. During the s, commercial aviation continued to make progress with the opening of Saint-Hubert Airport in
The university laid emphasis on laboratory instruction in applied science and engineering, specific to demands of the aerospace industry. During World War II part of the university was evacuated to Almaty Kazakhstan, the university, staff and students continued to work on research and wartime production throughout the war. During the Post-War period, the university expanded and assimilated new technologies during the Jet age. Research conducted in the university contributed to heralding the space age.
Беккер, спотыкаясь и кидаясь то вправо, то влево, продирался сквозь толпу.
В том, что он, Нуматака, в конце концов решил приобрести ключ Энсея Танкадо, крылась определенная ирония. Токуген Нуматака познакомился с Танкадо много лет. Молодой программист приходил когда-то в Нуматек, тогда он только что окончил колледж и искал работу, но Нуматака ему отказал. В том, что этот парень был блестящим программистом, сомнений не возникало, но другие обстоятельства тогда казались более важными.
Хотя Япония переживала глубокие перемены, Нуматака оставался человеком старой закалки и жил в соответствии с кодексом менбоко - честь и репутация.
Холодные серые глаза смотрели безжизненно. Живший в ее сознании герой умер, превратился в убийцу. Его руки внезапно снова потянулись к ней в отчаянном порыве. Он целовал ее щеки. - Прости меня, - умолял .
У вирусов есть линии размножения, приятель. Тут ничего такого. Сьюзан с трудом воспринимала происходящее. - Что же тогда случилось? - спросил Фонтейн.