Space product horse breeding, donkeys and mules
Feeding draft horses, miniature horses, ponies, mules, and donkeys requires special some considerations. As it turns out, caretakers must consider the special nutritional needs of the different equid species. Because the majority of equine-focused research is carried out on light-breed horses, Pugh said veterinarians and scientists base feeding recommendations for Miniature Horses, ponies, drafts, mules, and donkeys on a combination of "literature, experience, and some guesses. Pugh first discussed feeding draft horses.VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: What is a MULE? 2nd version
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American Mule Museum. History of the Mule by Dave Babb The exact origin of the mule may be somewhat difficult to determine, but its ancestry must begin with the origin of its parents - - the wild ass donkey and the horse. Mules, therefore, must have been bred in the wild in areas where both the wild ass and horse occupied the same territory. Mules in Ancient Times The mule has been deliberately bred by man since ancient times. The breeding of a jackass male donkey with a female horse mare is the most common and oldest known hybrid.
A somewhat less common hybrid, the hinny, was also bred by crossing a female donkey with a male horse. The inhabitants of Paphlagonia and Nicaea the northern and northwestern parts of modern day Turkey are said to have been the first to breed mules. The miners marked their route with carvings on rocks showing boats and mules not camels! Mules were, at that time, the preferred pack animal. Also in ancient Egypt, while the Pharaohs were carried about in fancy litters by servants, the common people often had the use of mule drawn carts.
An Egyptian monument from Thebes depicts mules yoked to a chariot. Mule remains are frequent in the archaeological record, suggesting that mules had become a "mainstream" animal early on, used primarily for pulling wagons or transporting burden.
To the north in Asia Minor, the Hittites were the most powerful of the early horse-people - - but they considered the mule to be at least three times more valuable in price than even a good chariot horse.
Sumerian texts from the third millennium BC stated the price of a mule was 20 to 30 shekels, seven times that of a donkey. At Ebla, the average price for a mule was 60 shekels. In the kingdom of Mari in northern Mesopotamia, the story was told that the King was reprimanded and asked to "Please …use a mule instead of the common horse", as his royal position demanded. People of ancient Ethiopia gave the mule the highest status of all the animals. The mule was highly valued in ancient Greece as well, for use as pack animals and to draw carriages.
While boats were used when traveling long distances in ancient Greece, as the country was partially a group of islands, the average citizen rarely left their home area and depended upon the mule as the most common mode of transportation. Mules had much harder hooves than horses and were better suited to cover the rocky terrain found in Greece. Also, the mule was easier to train than the horse, and could cover a mile area in a day and need only four or five hours of sleep.
The mule was well known to Homer in BC Greece. He reported in the Iliad, the arrival of mules from Henetia in Asia Minor, where breeding them was a local specialty. Later on, mules were raised in Peloponnesus and Arcadia, and harness races for mules began in Olympia in BC.
Such races were run throughout a period of more than 80 years. In ancient Rome, mules were used for transport and their amazing strength and endurance was known to all.
Roman soldiers were known to carry great quantities of equipment, armor, and rations over great distances on foot. When General Marius was called upon to defend Rome against the invading barbarians, he trained his soldiers to undertake amazing physical feats. To make this easier, he issued each legionary a forked stick to carry his load on his shoulders.
He may even have ridden a mule in the rough terrain, where elephants could not easily maneuver. The Law of Moses Leviticus declared that the breeding of hybrid animals was forbidden. The Hebrews were not forbidden to use mules, but they had to purchase and import - - either from the Egyptians or the people of Togarmah Armenia , who brought mule from the far north to Tyre for sale or barter. A hinny that belonged to David was ridden by Solomon at his coronation.
After his unsuccessful attempt to take the throne, Absalom was captured and killed while making his escape on a mule. When the Israelites returned from their Babylonian captivity in BC, they brought with them silver and gold and many animals - - including at least mules. Two Hebrew words referring to a mule or hinny are found 17 times in the Old Testament but there are no references in the New Testament - - perhaps suggesting the popularity of the mule had declined in that region.
Mules were common in European cities long before the Renaissance. As early as , Marco Polo reported on and praised the Turkoman mules he had seen in central Asia. In Medieval Europe, when larger horses were being bred to carry heavily armored knights, mules were the preferred riding animal of gentlemen and clergy.
By the 18 th century, the breeding of mules had become a flourishing industry in Spain, Italy, and France. For many years the French Province of Poitou was the primary European breeding center, with some , mules bred each year. Heavier draft mules were demanded for farm work and a local breed of stud donkey became most popular.
Soon, Spain was at the forefront of the mule-breeding industry as Catalonia and Andalusia each developed a larger and stronger breed of donkey.
Mules were not as prevalent in Britain or America until the late 18 th century. The chief demand for mules in Britain was for service in India and elsewhere abroad.
In , Christopher Columbus brought four jack donkeys and two jenny donkeys to the New World, along with horses. These animals would be instrumental in producing mules for the Conquistadores in their exploration into the American mainland.
Ten years after the conquest of the Aztecs, a shipment of three jacks and twelve jennies arrived from Cuba to begin breeding of mules in Mexico.
Female mules were preferred for riding while the males were preferred as pack animals throughout the Spanish Empire. Mules were not only used in the silver mines, but were very important along the Spanish frontier. Each outpost had to breed its own supply and every hacienda or mission kept at least one stud jack. George Washington played the major role in the development of the mule population in America.
He recognized the value of the mule in agriculture and became the first American mule breeder. Donkeys were already in America, as they came over with the early explorers, but they were quite small. Washington wished to breed the very best mules, but he faced a major obstacle - - the Spanish government at that time prohibited the acquisition or exportation of the famous Andalusian donkey.
Washington wrote to King Charles of Spain requesting permission to purchase good quality breeding stock. After the Revolutionary War, Washington started a program to develop a larger, stronger mule to be used on farms - - to replace horses in the field.
In less than fifteen years Washington had 58 mules working at Mount Vernon. The stud fee for serving horses was a third less than it was for serving donkeys. By , the U. Mules were rejected by northern farmers, who used a combination of horses and oxen, but they were popular in the south - - where they were the preferred draft animal. One farmer with two mules could easily plow 16 acres a day. Mules not only plowed the fields, but they harvested crops and carried the crops to market.
On tobacco farms, a mule-drawn planter was used to set the plants in the ground. Harvested tobacco was pulled on wooden sleds from the fields to the barns. A large number of donkeys were subsequently imported from Spain and in the decade between and the number of mules in the country increased percent.
More than , mules were foaled in the year alone, and by then mules had entirely replaced horses for farm work. By , the number of mules had expanded to 2. With the cotton boom, primarily in Texas, the number of mules grew to 4. One-fourth of all the mules were in Texas and the stockyards at Ft.
Worth became the world center for buying and selling mules. In , the U. The publication explained the attributes of mules, and gave instructions on how to successfully breed good stock, as was learned in the 's. The farm mule left the farms about the same time as draft mules left the Army, and for the same reason - - the combustion engine. But, during World War II, civilians faced gas rationing, so farmers reintroduced their reliable farm mule, at least for the duration of the war.
In the 's, as Anglo-Saxon settlers from the east moved west, the mule was by far the favorite pack animal.
Even during the years of Spanish influence in the Southwest, when horses, burros, llamas, dogs, and even camels were used, the Mexican mule was preferred. The Mexican breed was soon replaced by the American variety - - most of which came from Missouri. On the historic Old Spanish Trail that connected Santa Fe and Los Angeles, trains of pack mules were used from to - - mainly to carry wooden goods.
High quality woolen products from New Mexico Territory were often traded for good mules. The 2, mile long trail was considered the longest, most crooked and difficult trail for pack mules in the history of America. The first group ever to travel over that trail consisted of 60 men and mules. On wagon trains across the plains, mule could cover 30 miles a day, while wagons drawn by horses and oxen could average only five miles a day.
Stage coach lines also preferred mules to horses. Stage coaches were pulled by large mules that could travel six to ten miles per hour over flat, dry land.
Towns throughout the country often used mules to pull fire-fighting equipment, and many western towns were originally laid out with extremely wide streets to allow mule teams to turn around.
Western explorers and trailblazers knew the benefit of choosing a good mule and taking care of it. In choosing a mule, most figured it called for more thought than in choosing a wife. During the Indian wars in the American southwest, mules set a number of endurance records. In , a company of scouts and one pack train, loaded pounds on a mule and left the San Carlos agency in Arizona on a three-day march.
In those three days, the mule had covered miles. Another pack train covered miles in 16 hours - - while a third had traveled 85 miles in desert heat in just 12 hours. He believed that the success of any campaign, to a great extent, depended upon them.
About 1, mules operated out of Shasta alone. By , the California mule population swelled to over 31, Two mule teams were hitched together to form a foot long mule team.
During those years, the mule teams hauled over 20 million pounds of borax out of Death Valley. On those day round trips, over treacherous, mostly water-less terrain in extreme high temperatures, not a single mule was lost - - a tribute to the stamina of the mule. The "Mule Team" symbol was first used in and was registered in
How Mule Racing Led to Mule Cloning
There are no mule stud farms. Although mule racing is an accepted sport, it has no great lines of champions the way horse racing does, so it needed another way to keep bloodlines alive. Jacklin was also hoping to clone animals from his champion racer, Taz, Woods said. Anybody who has ever met identical twins knows that genetics are only part of the equation when it comes to individuals. The next two, Utah Pioneer and Idaho Star, each had their own personalities as well.
Technical Manual. United States. War Department. Technical Manual United States.
Facts About Donkeys
There is no more useful or willing animal than the Mule. And perhaps there is no other animal so much abused, or so little cared for. Popular opinion of his nature has not been favorable; and he has had to plod and work through life against the prejudices of the ignorant. Still, he has been the great friend of man, in war and in peace serving him well and faithfully. If he could tell man what he most needed it would be kind treatment. We all know how much can be done to improve the condition and advance the comfort of this animal; and he is a true friend of humanity who does what he can for his benefit. My object in writing this book was to do what I could toward working out a much needed reform in the breeding, care, and treatment of these animals.
Limited land? No Problem!
The International Museum of the Horse. Slideshow : Beautiful horses. Donkeys, zebras and mules all differ somewhat from horses in conformation. The most noticeable difference is of course the ears.
Accueil Menu principal Uses Horse meat. As is shown in the hunting scenes depicted in rock paintings, horse meat has been eaten by man since the prehistoric era. Horses are often seen in pre-historical hunting scenes, but depicted differently according to the region, the era and the season. Even though the degree to which slaughtered horses were eaten varied depending on the location, various analyses have shown that horses were an important food source.
Horses, donkeys and mules and their utility
The image of the ideal horse farm may be a sprawling ranch, with pastures as far as the eye can see, with the most pressing horsekeeping problem being how to check all those miles of fences before nightfall. But the reality is often quite different. Those of us who keep horses on small acreage know how tough it can be. Boot-sucking mud, overgrazed pastures, too-small turnoutsthose are just a few of the challenges you may face if your land is limited.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Mules - Breed Donkey Jack and Mare Horse - Meet Carol-Anne!
Donkeys, also called burros and asses, are found throughout the world. They are members of the Equidae family, which also includes horses and zebras. They look a lot like their cousins, but have long, floppy ears and tend to be stockier than horses or zebras. There are three main types of donkeys: wild, feral and domesticated. Wild donkeys typically grow to around 49 inches centimeters from hoof to shoulder and weight around lbs. Domesticated donkeys vary in size, depending on how they are bred.
Feeding Minis, Ponies, Draft Horses, Mules, and Donkeys
Breed — a stock of animals within a species having a distinctive appearance and typically having been developed by deliberate selection Breeding animal — an animal caused to produce offspring typically in a controlled and organized way Dam — a female parent Flock — a grouping of a species of livestock sheep, poultry Herd — a group of a single species of animal cattle, horses, swine, goats Livestock — domestic farm animals kept for productive purposes meat, milk, work, wool Market animal — livestock bred and raised for food consumption Polled — a naturally hornless animal Sire — a male parent Litter — multiple offspring produced at one birth by a multi-parous mammal. Also called brood. Chick — a newly hatched or a very young chicken Broilers — a chicken that is six to 13 weeks of age used for meat production Pullet — Female bird under one year of age Hen — Female bird over one year of age Cockerel — Male bird under one year of age Rooster — Male bird over one year of age Popular Products — eggs and chicken. Bovine — the scientific name for cattle Calf — a sexually immature young bovine Heifer — a young female bovine which has not yet had a calf Cow — a mature female bovine Steer — a castrated male bovine Bull — a sexually mature male bovine Popular Products — milk, beef and leather. Caprine — refers to animals in the goat family Kid — a young goat Wether — a castrated male goat Doe — aka. Swine — a refers to animals in the pig family Barrow — a young, castrated male swine Boar — a sexually mature male swine Gilt — a young female pig Hog — a mature swine usually weighing more than pounds Pig — aka. Sow — a mature female swine.
A mule is the offspring of a male donkey jack and a female horse mare. Of the two first generation hybrids between these two species, a mule is easier to obtain than a hinny , which is the offspring of a female donkey jenny and a male horse stallion. The size of a mule and work to which it is put depend largely on the breeding of the mule's female parent dam.
The history that mules, mountains and the military share
India's military mules: No road too treacherous. Demonetisation: Money mules are back again. Persistent Systems and MuleSoft announce partnership. All rights reserved.
For more information see The Donkey Care Handbook. Donkeys are from origin an animal which should always be ready to flight from predator s, and therefore their instincts for flighting is still a part of their behavior. They are more likely to take up a fight than horses, and they are quite territorial animals.
A Mule is the product of breeding a male donkey with a female horse. Because genetic research shows us that the donkey and the horse are separate species, their offspring, the Mule, is a genetic hybrid. Read on to learn about the Mule. Just like you might expect, this hybrid looks like a mixture between a donkey and a horse.
Ну хватит. Телефон заливался еще секунд пятнадцать и наконец замолк. Джабба облегченно вздохнул. Через шестьдесят секунд у него над головой затрещал интерком. - Прошу начальника систем безопасности связаться с главным коммутатором, где его ждет важное сообщение. От изумления у Джаббы глаза вылезли на лоб.
Мне больно! - задыхаясь, крикнула Сьюзан. Она судорожно ловила ртом воздух, извиваясь в руках Хейла. Он хотел было отпустить ее и броситься к лифту Стратмора, но это было бы чистым безумием: все равно он не знает кода.