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Units industrial synthetic dyes

Units industrial synthetic dyes

Previously, industries were small plants that produced smoke and gases as the main pollutant. However, since the number of plants were limited and worked only a specific number of hours a day, the levels of pollution did not increase significantly. But when these plants became full scale industries and started to manufacture units, the problem of industrial pollution started to take on more importance. As technology improves.

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Textile Engineering & Fashion Technology

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Sign up to take part. A Nature Research Journal. Industrial synthetic dyes cause health and environmental problems. This work describes the isolation of 84 bacterial strains from the midgut of the Lasius niger ant and the evaluation of their potential application in dye bioremediation. Strains were identified and classified as judged by rRNA 16S.

We analyzed the content in laccase, azoreductase and peroxidase activities and their ability to degrade three known dyes azo, thiazine and anthraquinone with different chemical structures. Strain Ln26 identified as Brevibacterium permense strongly decolorized the three dyes tested at different conditions. It was determined that 8. Finally, the genome of the most promising candidate Ln26, approximately 4. Genes coding for two DyP-type peroxidases, one laccase and one azoreductase were identified and account for the ability of this strain to effectively oxidize a variety of dyes with different chemical structures.

Synthetic dyes are widely used in different types of production including the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, hair coloring, food coloring supplements, carpet and leather manufacturing and printing industries 1. Consequently, the wastewater generated by these processes often contains a variety of chemicals that can seriously pollute the environment 2. However, copper-enzymes can catalyze the oxidation of different natural and xenobiotic compounds, such as phenols, polyphenols, amines, substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pesticides and synthetic dyes, by using atmospheric oxygen.

Among these dyes, thiazine, azo and anthraquinone are the organic groups most commonly found, and all are recalcitrant and toxic to both the environment and humans in varying degrees 4.

Therefore, eliminating these compounds is essential in order to protect living beings and the natural world. Although different chemical methods have been proposed to achieve this goal, many are expensive and generate the problem of disposing the resulting sludge 5. In recent years, there has been a trend toward developing eco-friendly solutions for degrading dyes based on bioremediation strategies. One of the best options for bioremediation is the use of microorganisms that contain oxidoreductases capable of degrading these types of dyes.

Moreover, it is known that laccases, azoreductases and peroxidases are three types of enzymes frequently involved in these kinds of oxidative processes. Among the first and most frequently used enzymes are laccases E. As a result, laccases have received much attention, and in particular fungal laccases 8 , owing to their potential application in biotechnological processes.

Furthermore, ever since laccase-like activity was initially detected in the bacteria Azospirillum lipoferum , the use of prokaryotic cells expressing these enzymes has increased due to their potential applications 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 , Azoreductases E. Azoreductases are flavoenzymes that require a redox cofactor for catalyzing the degradative reactions, typically NAD P H These enzymes are also used to degrade azo dyes 15 , because they are able to cleave azo bonds producing simple amines and other decolourized aromatic compounds.

In recent years, several bacterial azoreductases have been discovered, such as Kocuria rosea, Bacillus subtilis, Xenophilus azovorans, Enterococcus faecalis and Shewanella S12 16 , 17 , 18 , 19 , 20 , and used for similar types of purposes.

Peroxidases E. These enzymes catalyze the oxidation of a number of compounds using hydrogen peroxide as the substrate 21 , Furthermore, the use of peroxides to remove azo dyes and other xenobiotic compounds from textile effluents is well established These enzymes are presented in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms 15 and new microbial peroxidases have also been recently described Although fungi are the most commonly used microorganisms in the treatment of azo dyes, the use of bacteria has been increased in recent years as a way to improve the end result of the oxidative processes.

Prokaryotic cells are able to carry out dye degradation faster and with wider specificity In addition, dye decolorizing bacteria have been isolated from different niches including soil, water, the animal gut, and even the human intestine 26 , Some reports indicate that there are other easy-to-handle and promising ecological niches, such as insects, that are practically unexplored.

Preliminary studies have indicated that bacteria from the termite gut contain putative laccases involved in the oxidation of polyphenols and other related compounds present in plant biomass Bacterial strains isolated from the ant midgut have also been described in diverse species of the genera Camponotus and Cephalotes , suggesting oxidative degrading enzymes contribute to the digestion of xenobiotics ingested by these insects 29 , Furthermore, a beneficial symbiosis between the actinomycetes inhabiting the surface of black garden ants Lasius niger and their host has also been reported However, there are no studies related to the detailed nature of the living microbiota in ants and their potential application in dye degradation and bioremediation processes.

The present work describes the isolation and identification of a number of bacterial strains from Lasius niger and the evaluation of their potential application in bioremediation. We explored the nature of the oxidative enzymes contained in the strains identified that were found to effectively degrade three common dyes with different chemical structures.

The correlations among oxidoreductases and the sort of dye preferentially degraded are discussed, and those oxidoreductases have been partially characterized. Data on the optimal pH and temperature for the two most active strains Ln26 and Ln78 have been presented and a complete genome sequence analysis of the strain Ln26 genome has been carried out to establish possible correlations between the genes identified and enzyme activities.

The advantage and novelty of the present case is the use of ant microbiota as source of enzymes for bioremediation. We were looking for strains with wide specificity containing several complementary oxidoreductases acting on dyes of different chemical structure. After a week of incubation on agar plates, a total of 93 microorganisms were isolated, of which 84 were bacterial strains and 9 were eukaryotes 4 filamentous fungi and 5 yeasts.

Only the bacterial isolates were selected for this study and identified through sequencing the 16S rRNA gene. The 27 isolates of the phylum Actinobacteria belonged to the genus Streptomyces 11 , Brevibacterium 6 , Micrococcus 6 , Rhodococcus 2 , Micromonspora 1 and Dermacoccus 1. There were also 26 isolates from the phylum Firmicutes, which was represented by the genera Bacillus 20 , Paenibacillus 4 , Staphylococcus 2. Two isolates from the phylum Alphaproteobacteria were isolated, represented by the genera Roseomonas 1 and Sphingomona s 1.

The largest group, in terms of the number of species recovered, was the genus Streptomyces 5 species , followed by Bacillus , Brevibacterium and Staphylococcus 2 , and Roseomonas , Micromonospora , Dermacoccus , Paenibacillus , Sphingomonas and Micrococcus 1.

The assay conditions were laccase-like no extra additions , azoreductase-like addition of NADH as enzyme cofactor and peroxidase-like addition of H 2 O 2 as enzymatic substrate. Forty-one strains were able to oxidize at least one of the three dyes.

This indicated that these strains did not express the enzymes assayed and were therefore discarded. Interestingly, the degradation of each dye showed a certain correlation with some of the three conditions assayed. CR was decolorized by 19 strains under laccase-like conditions, but only 8 strains were able to act on this azo dye in the presence of NADH or H 2 O 2. TB was preferentially decolorized under azoreductase-like conditions by 21 strains, and RBB was preferentially decolorized in the presence of H 2 O 2 peroxidase-like conditions by 16 strains.

Some strains showed specific activity, where Ln16, Ln30, Ln49 and Ln93 only showed activity in the presence of CR under the three different conditions. On the other hand, the addition of NADH or H 2 O 2 enhanced the decolorizing potential of some strains in comparison to laccase-like conditions but decreased the action of the others. Although these specific features are interesting regarding the nature of the enzymes contained by the different strains, the application of these differences in bioremediation processes is not clear yet.

DMP is a chromogen that can be used for the easy detection of oxidizing activity. According to the results, a high number of strains tested positive 32 out of Remarkably, Ln26 produced the strongest and most versatile decoloration activity on the three synthetic dyes under several conditions, making it the best candidate for future use in bioremediation.

Thus, the decoloration capacity of the Ln26 strain was also tested in liquid medium under identical conditions that the agar plate assay by without agar addition. Thus, we selected Ln26 and Ln78 to determine the optimal temperature and pH conditions for expressing maximum activity, using DMP as substrate for this series of experiments.

Concerning pH, no activity was observed in the citrate buffer at pH 5. Using the phosphate buffer, however, activity started to be detected at pHs greater than 6, which significantly increased at pHs greater than 7. The latter was found to be the optimal pH for both strains, although, as expected, Ln26 exhibited higher oxidative ability than Ln Activities are expressed as enzymatic units in comparison to a commercial laccase.

As strain Ln26 showed significant potential to be used in bioremediation, its genome was sequenced to evaluate the presence of oxidoreductase enzymes. It was found that the strain Ln26 contained a cluster of genes encoding DyP-type peroxidase enzymes. All sequences found were compared with the Ln26 Brevibacterium permense genome using Blastp Some genes were identified encoding possible laccase and azoreductase enzymes that had not been previously annotated.

Two of the most important factors concerning the use of oxidative enzymes for dye decolorization in bioremediation processes are the type of oxidoreductase and the chemical structure of the dyes. A possible correlation between both factors would be significantly helpful for designing efficient systems. In this study, we isolated and characterized a number of bacterial strains obtained from the ant midgut.

In fact, ant microbiota is an easy and essentially unexplored source. The classification and identification of the strains was performed using 16S rRNA sequences. All bacterial isolates were classified into 11 genera. Three of these Staphylococcus , Enterococcus and Bacillus have previously been described as symbionts isolated from the midgut of fire ants 33 , The two other isolates Streptomyces and Dermacoccus have been described as being associated with leaf-cutting-ants Moreover, it has been reported that the genus Streptomyces can act as an ectosymbiont on the surface and nests of Lasius niger 31 , suggesting that Streptomyces is a common symbiont of ants and could play a role in their lifecycle.

The remaining 6 genera Roseomonas , Sphingomonas, Micrococcus , Paenibacillus , Brevibacterium and Rhodococcus have never been previously described as being associated with any type of ants, including Lasius niger.

In turn, according to our results, some isolates may contain oxidoreductases. Briefly, laccases are multicopper oxidoreductases that show relatively wide specificity using atmospheric oxygen as the oxidant substrate Azoreductases are oxidoreductases that act on nitrogenous organic compounds using NAD P H as cofactors According to their name, most azoreductases are able to cleave azo bond in dyes containing this chemical group, although sulfonated dyes are resistant to degradation Peroxidases are powerful oxidoreductases, as they use hydrogen peroxide as co-substrate.

We have chosen three standard dyes, with different chemical structures, widely used in textile and biotechnological processes. In total, three types of dyes were used: Red Congo an azo dye, sulfonated, acidic and usually available as sodium salt ; Blue Toluidine a thiazine, basic, usually available as chloride ; and Remazol Brilliant Blue R an anthraquinone, sulfonated, acidic, usually as sodium salt. We found a variety of bacterial strains with different abilities to decolorize the 3 dyes assayed.

Laccases are the most suitable enzymes, since they do not require cofactors or co-substrate, but only atmospheric oxygen. This pattern suggests the expression of azoreductases in these strains. It has been reported that certain azoreductases are able to reduce sulfonated azo dyes such as the enzyme produced by Bacillus sp.

B29

Synthetic dye decolourization by white rot fungi.

Geen eBoek beschikbaar Bol. Sumit K. Intimately familiar with Indian industry, he has observed India's industrial transformation, from a closed backward economy to one rapidly becoming one of the world's major powers, from an inimitable historical as well as a contemporary perspective. He maintains deep ties and regularly visits India to engage in interactions with entrepreneurs and policymakers from all of India's industrial sectors.

Of all dyes produced across the world, 11 per cent goes out as effluents. Each year, India produces 64, tonnes of dyes, 7, tonnes of which are directly discharged into the environment. Enough to dye the river Sabarmati!

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Pollution from Synthetic Dyes

Microbial laccases are highly useful in textile effluent dye biodegradation. However, the bioavailability of cellularly expressed or purified laccases in continuous operations is usually limited by mass transfer impediment or enzyme regeneration difficulty. Therefore, this study develops a regenerable bacterial surface-displaying system for industrial synthetic dye decolorization, and evaluates its effects on independent and continuous operations. A bacterial laccase WlacD was engineered onto the cell surface of the solvent-tolerant bacterium Pseudomonas putida to construct a whole-cell biocatalyst. Ice nucleation protein InaQ anchor was employed, and the ability of 1 to 3 tandemly aligned N-terminal repeats to direct WlacD display were compared. Immobilized WlacD was determined to be surface-displayed in functional form using Western blot analysis, immunofluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry, and whole-cell enzymatic activity assay. Engineered P.

United Colours of Industry

Dyeing is the application of dyes or pigments on textile materials such as fibers , yarns , and fabrics with the goal of achieving color with desired color fastness. Dyeing is normally done in a special solution containing dyes and particular chemical material. Dye molecules are fixed to the fibre by absorption, diffusion, or bonding with temperature and time being key controlling factors. The bond between dye molecule and fibre may be strong or weak, depending on the dye used.

Bioremediation is an emerging field of environmental research.

An estimated 1. The magic behind this timeless piece of clothing is none other than the 50 shades of blue — indigo to be precise. Indigo is a color, a plant and a specific molecule. And while there are 5,year-old traditions of using natural indigo in places such as India, Japan, and Guatemala, most indigo on the market today is derived from non-renewable fossil fuels — and thus unsustainable.

Textile dye wastewater characteristics and constituents of synthetic effluents: a critical review

Eco-Friendly Textile Dyeing and Finishing. Dyes may be defined as substances that, when applied to a substrate provide color by a process that alters, at least temporarily, any crystal structure of the colored substances [ 1 , 2 ]. Such substances with considerable coloring capacity are widely employed in the textile, pharmaceutical, food, cosmetics, plastics, photographic and paper industries [ 3 , 4 ].

Natural Science Vol. Color is the main attraction of any fabric. No matter how excellent its constitution, if unsuitably colored it is bound to be a failure as a commercial fabric. Manufacture and use of synthetic dyes for fabric dyeing has therefore become a massive industry today. In fact the art of applying color to fabric has been known to mankind since BC.

Feeling blue? How this entrepreneur revitalized a natural dye industry

Dyeing is the process of imparting colors to a textile material. Natural dyes are friendly and satisfying to use. They are obtained from sources like flowers, leaves, insects, bark roots etc. With the advancement of chemical industry, all finishing procedures of textile materials have been growing constantly and, sustainable and ecological production techniques have become extremely crucial. This is a single book which has information related to extraction of dyestuff from 19 common flowers, weeds, bark or leaves and its application on cotton silk and wool fabrics for textile industry.

Jul 10, - It is worthy to note that synthetic dyes are compounds that are highly are placed in a biological unit consisting of an activated sludge basin.

Colorants are used in many industries - to colour clothes, paints, plastics, photographs, prints, and ceramics. Colorants are also now being used in novel applications and are termed functional high technology as they are not just included in the product for aesthetic reasons but for specific purposes, for example in surgery. Colorants can be either dyes or pigments. Dyes are soluble coloured organic compounds that are usually applied to textiles from a solution in water.

Textile Dyes: Dyeing Process and Environmental Impact

Textile industries are responsible for one of the major environmental pollution problems in the world, because they release undesirable dye effluents. Textile wastewater contains dyes mixed with various contaminants at a variety of ranges. Therefore, environmental legislation commonly obligates textile factories to treat these effluents before discharge into the receiving watercourses.

Chemical building blocks and useful products

Regret for the inconvenience: we are taking measures to prevent fraudulent form submissions by extractors and page crawlers. Received: August 18, Published: July 14, Citation: Choudhury AKR.

It was the first of the triphenylmethane dyes and triggered the second phase of the synthetic dye industry. Other reagents were found to give better yields, leading to vigorous patent activity and several legal disputes.

He received B. He received Ph. His major research work during Ph. D was focused on the bacterial degradation and detoxification of recalcitrant melanoidin from distillery wastewater.

Account Options Inloggen. Mijn bibliotheek Help Geavanceerd zoeken naar boeken. Springer Shop Bol. Riegel's Handbook of Industrial Chemistry. The aim of this book is to present in a single volume an up-to-date account of the chemistry and chemical engineering which underlie the major areas of the chemical process industry. This most recent edition includes several new chapters which comprise important threads in the industry's total fabric. These new chapters cover waste minimization, safety considerations in chemical plant design and operation, emergency response planning, and statistical applications in quality control and experimental planning.

Иной раз человек в моем положении… - Он замялся, словно принимая трудное решение.  - Иногда человек в моем положении вынужден лгать людям, которых любит. Сегодня как раз такой день.

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  1. JoJokazahn

    Very good question