Units product pigments, paints, glazes, enamels for fine ceramics, glass and other purposes
Interestingly, not only do most of these sectors have roots in antiquity, but they also share a number of common general processes. For example, all are fundamentally based on the use of naturally occurring raw materials in powder or fine particulate form which are transformed by heat into the desired products. Therefore, despite the range of processes and products encompassed in this group, these common processes allow a common overview of potential health hazards associated with these industries. Since the various manufacturing sectors are composed of both small, fragmented segments e. There are common safety and health hazards encountered in manufacturing of products in these business sectors. The hazards and control measures are discussed in other sections of the Encyclopaedia.VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Torch Enameling Tutorial - becomenzando.com
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Interestingly, not only do most of these sectors have roots in antiquity, but they also share a number of common general processes. For example, all are fundamentally based on the use of naturally occurring raw materials in powder or fine particulate form which are transformed by heat into the desired products.
Therefore, despite the range of processes and products encompassed in this group, these common processes allow a common overview of potential health hazards associated with these industries. Since the various manufacturing sectors are composed of both small, fragmented segments e.
There are common safety and health hazards encountered in manufacturing of products in these business sectors. The hazards and control measures are discussed in other sections of the Encyclopaedia. Process-specific hazards are discussed in the individual sections of this chapter. Most of the industrial manufacturing processes receive dry solid raw materials in bulk form or individual bags.
Bulk solid raw materials are unloaded from hopper rail cars or over-the-road trucks into bins, hoppers or mixers by gravity, pneumatic transfer lines, screw conveyors, bucket conveyors or other mechanical transfer. Pallets of bagged raw materials 20 to 50 kg or large bulk fabric bag containers 0. Individual bags or raw materials are removed from pallets manually or with powered lift assists. Bagged raw materials are typically charged into a bag dumping station or directly into storage hoppers or scale hoppers.
Potential safety and health hazards associated with the solid raw material unloading, handling and transfer processes include:. Manufacturing products in these business sectors involves drying, melting or firing processes in kilns or furnaces. Potential hazards presented from firing or melting processes include:. Material-handling, fabrication and packaging processes differ to a large extent in this business sector, as do the size, shape and weights of products.
The high density of materials in this sector or bulky configurations present common material-handling hazards. Manual lifting and material handling in production, fabrication, packaging and warehousing in this industry accounts for many disabling injuries. Injury reduction efforts are focusing on reducing manual lifting and material handling. For example, innovative packaging designs, robotics for stacking and palletizing finished products, and automatic guided transport vehicles for warehousing are starting to be used in select parts of this business sector to eliminate manual material handling and associated injuries.
Use of conveyors, manned lift assists e. The use of robotics to eliminate manual material handling is playing a major role in prevention of ergonomic injuries. Robotics has reduced ergonomic stresses and severe laceration injuries that have been historically associated with material handling e.
However, increased utilization of robotics and process automation introduces moving machinery and electric power hazards, which transforms the types of hazards and also transfers risks to other workers from production to maintenance workers. Proper designs of electronic controls and logic sequencing, machine guards, total energy lockout practices and establishing safe operating and maintenance procedures are fundamental ways to control injuries to maintenance and production workers.
Numerous potential health and safety hazards are encountered during periodic major rebuilds or cold repairs to furnaces or kilns. A wide range of hazards associated with construction activities may be encountered.
Examples include: ergonomic hazards with material handling e. Obsidian, for instance, is a naturally occurring combination of oxides fused by intense volcanic heat and vitrified made into a glass by rapid air cooling.
Its opaque, black colour comes from the relatively high amounts of iron oxide it contains. Its chemical durability and hardness compare favourably with many commercial glasses.
Glass technology has evolved for 6, years, and some modern principles date back to ancient times. The origin of the first synthetic glasses is lost in antiquity and legend. Faience was made by the Egyptians, who molded figurines from sand SiO 2 , the most popular glass-forming oxide. The copper oxide gave the article an appealing blue colour.
A most important development in glass technology was the use of a blow pipe see figure 5 , which was first used in approximately years BC. From then onwards, there was a rapid development in the technique of manufacturing glass. The first glass was coloured because of the presence of various impurities such as oxides of iron and chromium.
Virtually colourless glass was first made some 1, years ago. At that time glass manufacturing was developing in Rome, and from there it moved to many other countries in Europe. Many glass works were built in Venice, and an important development took place there. In the 13th century, many of the glass plants were moved from Venice to a nearby island, Murano. Murano is still a centre for the production of hand-made glass in Italy.
By the 16th century, glass was made all over Europe. Now Bohemian glass from the Czech Republic is well known for its beauty and glass plants in the United Kingdom and Ireland produce high-quality lead crystal glass tableware. Sweden is another country that is home to artistic glass crystalware production. In North America the first manufacturing establishment of any sort was a glass factory. English settlers started to produce glass at the beginning of the 17th century at Jamestown, Virginia.
Today glass is manufactured in most countries all over the world. Many products of glass are made in fully automatic processing lines. Although glass is one of the oldest materials, its properties are unique and not yet fully understood.
The glass industry today is made up of several major market segments, which include the flat glass market, the consumer houseware market, the glass containers market, the optical glass industry and the scientific glassware market segment. The optical and scientific glass markets tend to be very ordered and are dominated by one or two suppliers in most countries.
These markets are also much lower in volume than the consumer-based markets. Each of these markets has developed over the years by innovations in specific glass technology or manufacturing advancements.
The container industry, for example, was driven by the development of high-speed bottle-making machines developed in the early s. The flat glass industry was significantly advanced by the development of the float glass process in the early s.
Both of these segments are multi-billion-dollar businesses worldwide today. Depending upon the specific category, a variety of other materials compete for market share, including ceramics, metals and plastics. Glass is an inorganic product of fusion which has cooled to a rigid condition without crystallizing. Glass is typically hard and brittle and has a conchoidal fracture. Glass may be manufactured to be coloured, translucent or opaque by varying the dissolved amorphous or crystalline materials that are present.
When glass is cooled from the hot molten state, it gradually increases in viscosity without crystallization over a wide temperature range, until it assumes its characteristic hard, brittle form. Cooling is controlled to prevent crystallization, or high strain. While any compound which has these physical properties is theoretically a glass, most commercial glasses fall into three main types and have a wide range of chemical compositions. A commercial glass batch consists of a mixture of several ingredients.
However, the largest fraction of the batch is made up of from 4 to 6 ingredients, chosen from such materials as sand, limestone, dolomite, soda ash, borax, boric acid, feldspathic materials, lead and barium compounds.
The remainder of the batch consists of several additional ingredients, chosen from a group of some 15 to 20 materials commonly referred to as minor ingredients. These latter additions are added with a view to providing some specific function or quality, such as colour, which is to be realized during the glass preparation process. Figure 6 illustrates the basic principles of glass manufacture. The raw materials are weighed, mixed and, after the addition of broken glass cullet , taken to the furnace for melting.
Small pots of up to 2 tonnes capacity are still used for the melting of glass for hand-blown crystalware and special glasses required in small quantity.
Several pots are heated together in a combustion chamber. In most modern manufacture, melting takes place in large regenerative, recuperative or electric furnaces built of refractory material and heated by oil, natural gas or electricity. Electric boosting and cold top electric melting were commercialized and became extensively utilized globally in the late s and s.
The driving force behind cold top electric melting was emission control, while electric boosting was generally used in order to improve glass quality and to increase throughput.
The most significant economic factors concerning the use of electricity for glass furnace melting are related to fossil fuel costs, the availability of various fuels, electricity costs, capital costs for equipment and so on. However, in many instances the prime reason for the use of electric melting or boosting is environmental control. Various locations worldwide either already have or are expected soon to have environmental regulations that strictly restrict the discharge of various oxides or particulate matter in general.
Thus, manufacturers in many locations face the possibility of either having to reduce glass melting throughputs, install baghouses or precipitators in order to handle waste flue gases or modify the melting process and include electric melting or boost.
The alternatives to such modification may in some cases be plant shutdowns. In addition, all types of glass are subjected to further controlled cooling annealing in a special oven or lehr. Subsequent processing will depend on the type of manufacturing process. Automatic blowing is used on machines for bottle and lamp bulb production in addition to traditional hand-blown glass.
Simple shapes, such as in insulators, glass bricks, lens blanks and so on, are pressed rather than blown. Some manufacturing processes use a combination of mechanical blowing and pressing. Wired and figured glass is rolled. Sheet glass is drawn from the furnace by a vertical process which gives it a fire-finished surface. Owing to the combined effects of drawing and gravity, some minor distortion is inevitable. Plate glass passes through water-cooled rollers onto an annealing lehr.
It is free from distortion. Surface damage can be removed by grinding and polishing after fabrication. This process has largely been replaced by the float glass process, which was introduced in recent years see figure 7. The float process has made possible the manufacture of a glass that combines the advantages of both sheet and plate. Float glass has a fire-finished surface and is free from distortion. In the float process, a continuous ribbon of glass moves out of a melting furnace and floats along the surface of a bath of molten tin.
The glass conforms to the perfect surface of the molten tin. On its passage over the tin, the temperature is reduced until the glass is sufficiently hard to be fed onto the rollers of the annealing lehr without marking its under surface. An inert atmosphere in the bath prevents oxidation of the tin.
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Ceramic Glaze. Sodium from the salt reacts with silica in the clay body to form a glassy coating of sodium silicate. If you're seeking bright glazes, electric patterns or unique blends, these colorful glazed pots come in many different shapes and sizes. Ceramic Glaze Technology. Create a high fire look with our low fire Pottery Glazes.
Name A Glaze Flux. A stiff molten liquid glaze is one of high viscosity, while a runny molten liquid glaze is one of low viscosity. Jan 15, Ceramic glaze recipes that use spodumene as a flux. Typical glass contains formers, fluxes, and stabilizers.
Pursuing novel ways to solve challenges is what drives the people of Ferro. But, our functional coatings and color solutions are part of those products — in more ways than you can imagine. A new range of complex inorganic color pigments for food contact that meets industry, regulatory and end customer requirements. An ancient tradition gets a modern performance upgrade with Ferro technology. Adding new expertise and capabilities. Creating demand. Reaching new customers.
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During the tempering process of the glass, these enamels melt and fuse permanently to the glass surface to form a coloured ceramic layer. A typical enamel consists of a mix of fine ground glass flux and colour pigments together with oil- or water-based solvents and thinner. Depending on the application method the composition can differ significantly.
Enamel Powders It might be doing you more harm than good, damaging your enamel even if it does whiten your teeth. Enamel for crafts Enamels are purchased in different types - finely ground powder, lumps, threads, liquid suspensions, oil based colors, etc. Of these shades, citrine, honey, apricot and quartz are designed to adjust saturation and chroma and to accentuate the enamel area. Included in its product line are enamels for both metals and glass.
ASTM's paint and related coating standards are instrumental in specifying and evaluating the physical and chemical properties of various paints and coatings that are applied to certain bulk materials to improve their surface properties. Guides are also provided for the proper methods of applying these coatings, which also include enamels, varnishes, electroplatings, pigments, and solvents. These paint and related coating standards help paint manufacturers and end-users in the appropriate testing and application procedures for the coating of their concern. Additive Manufacturing Standards. Cement Standards and Concrete Standards. Fire Standards and Flammability Standards.
Name A Glaze Flux
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The third edition of the Dictionary of Ceramic Science and Engineering builds on the heavily revised 2nd edition which, in turn, expanded the original edition by some entries to include new fabrication, testing, materials, and vocabulary. The proven basis of the first two editions has been retained but new words and phrases have been added from the rapidly advancing electronic, nanoparticle and modern materials engineering fields. Additionally, all measurements in SI units are given to facilitate communication among the many sub-disciplines touched on by ceramics, ensuring that this publication remains the field's standard reference work for years to come.
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