Fabrication building linen, hemp, kenaf and jute fibers
The main objective of the book is to expose readers to the basics of sustainable material forming and joining technologies, and to discuss the relationship between conventional and sustainable processes. It also provides case studies for sustainable issues in material forming and joining processes, workouts for converting conventional processes to green processes, and highlights the importance of awareness on sustainable and green manufacturing through education. The book will include green and sustainability concepts in material forming like bulk forming and sheet forming emphasizing hot forming, materials development, lubrication, and minimizing defects. Conceptualizes green and sustainability issues towards efficient material forming and joining. Discusses green and sustainability concepts in material forming like bulk forming and sheet forming emphasizing hot forming, materials development, lubrication, and minimizing defects. He received his Ph.
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Extraction, processing, properties and use of hemp fiber
Biodegradable Matrices and Composites View all 17 Articles. The increase in awareness of the damage caused by synthetic materials on the environment has led to the development of eco-friendly materials.
The researchers have shown a lot of interest in developing such materials which can replace the synthetic materials. As a result, there is an increase in demand for commercial use of the natural fiber-based composites in recent years for various industrial sectors. Natural fibers are sustainable materials which are easily available in nature and have advantages like low-cost, lightweight, renewability, biodegradability, and high specific properties.
The sustainability of the natural fiber-based composite materials has led to upsurge its applications in various manufacturing sectors. In this paper, we have reviewed the different sources of natural fibers, their properties, modification of natural fibers, the effect of treatments on natural fibers, etc.
We also summarize the major applications of natural fibers and their effective use as reinforcement for polymer composite materials. Material selection in design and manufacturing of a sustainable product plays a vital role in the field of engineering design. The materials are used to explore their physical properties along with their mechanical properties to make the product better one and reach its customer satisfaction levels.
The polymer composite materials are one of such materials which provide the ease of processing, productivity, and cost reduction Faruk et al. The composites are tailor-made materials which have a unique quality where the properties can be altered by varying the different reinforcement and matrix phase Bledzki and Gassan, ; Yogesha, Compared with the synthetic fibers, the natural fibers have many advantages due to their abundance, availability, and low cost Arpitha et al.
The natural fibers are introduced instead of synthetic fibers to make the composites lighter. The density of natural fibers 1. As a result, there is an increase in the demand for the commercial use of natural fiber-based composites in various industrial sectors.
Therefore, natural fibers such as hemp, jute, sisal, banana, coir, and kenaf are extensively used in the production of the lightweight composites Sreekala and Thomas, ; Thakur et al. The natural fiber-based composites have been used in automotive interior linings roof, rear wall, side panel lining , furniture, construction, packaging, and shipping pallets, etc.
Oksman, ; Lau et al. Natural fibers are extracted from different plants and animals chicken feather, hair, etc. Aziz and Ansell, ; Huda et al. The plant fibers are made up of constituents like cellulose, lignin, hemicellulose, pectin, waxes, and water-soluble substances, which is represented in Figure 1.
The presence of cellulose which is hydrophilic in nature affects the interfacial bonding between the polymer matrix and the fibers because the matrix is hydrophobic. Chemical treatment of the natural fibers is one of the ways to optimize the interaction between the fibers and polymer matrix.
As it reduces the OH functional groups present on the fiber surface and also it increases the surface roughness and hence enhances the interfacial interaction between the matrix and the fibers Liu et al. The study of natural fibers is very essential to develop eco-friendly composites.
Figure 1. Constituents of plant fibers Faruk et al. The kenaf fibers are one of the important fibers belongs to bast fibers and it is mainly used for paper and rope production Hamidon et al.
Kenaf is a fibrous plant. They are stiff, strong, and tough and have high resistance to insecticides. These plants are cultivated 4, years ago in Africa, Asia, America, and some parts of Europe Saba et al. The fibers are extracted from flowers, outer fiber, and inner core. The kenaf plants upon harvesting are processed by using a mechanical fiber separator and the whole stalk is used in pulping.
The extracted fibers must be treated chemically or bacterially to separate it from the non-fibrous substances like wax, pectin, and other substances Suharty et al. These fibers can be converted into fine woven fabrics. Kenaf fibers are environmentally friendly as they are completely biodegradable. In the olden days, these fibers were used for textiles, cords, ropes, storage bags, and Egyptians used it for making boats.
Nowadays these fibers are made as composites along with other materials and are used in automotive, construction, packaging, furniture, textiles, mats, paper pulp, etc. Nishino et al. The Hemp is one of the kinds of plants species grown mainly in Europe and Asia.
It grows up to 1. The inner girth is surrounded by core, and the outer layer is the bast fiber and it is attached to the inner layer by glue-like substance or pectin. These fibers are used in rope, textiles, garden mulch, the assortment of building material and animal beddings.
In recent developments, it is used to fabricate different composites Li et al. The hemp plants are harvested, and the woody core from bast fibers is separated by a sequence of mechanical process.
The woody core is cleaned to obtain the required core content and sometimes they are cut to the desired size. While the separated bast fibers are further processed to form yarn or bundles Clarke, ; Duval et al. The jute plant grows up to 15—20 cm in 4 months, and the fibers are extracted after harvesting which is about 4 months from cultivation. In biological retting, the stalks which are harvested are arranged in bundles and allowed to soak in water for about 20 days Banik et al.
This removes the pectin between the bast and the wood core which helps in the separation of the fibers. Then these fibers are allowed to dry. The flax fibers are produced from the prehistoric period.
These fibers are separated from the stems of the plant Linum usitatissimum is mainly used to produce linen Ruan et al. These are cellulosic plants but they are more in crystalline form. Netherlands, Belgium, and France are the leading manufacturers of these fibers. These fibers are used in furniture materials, textiles bed sheets, linen, interior decoration accessories, etc.
Van de Weyenberg et al. The fiber extraction involves the retting, and scorching both this process will make some alterations in the properties of the fibers. The retting involves the enzymes which degrade the pectin around the flax fibers which results in separation of fibers.
Canada is the largest flax producer and exporter in the world, produced about , tons Bos et al. Ramie is one of the herbaceous perennial plants cultivated extensively in the region native to China, Japan, and Malaysia where it has been used for over a century as one of the textile fabrics Nam and Netravali, ; Rehman et al. Ramie is a non-branching, fast-growing plant which grows up to 1—2 m height. The fibers extracted from the stem are the strongest and longest of the natural bast fibers.
They are used to make sweaters in combination with cotton, also it is used in upholstery, gas mantle, fishing nets, and marine packings, etc. Cengiz and Babalik, ; Marsyahyo et al. In addition to this attempt has been made for developing bio-based products by utilizing them in the field of automotive, furniture, construction, etc. The ramie fibers are extensively used for the production of a wide range of textiles, pulp, and paper, agrochemicals, composites, etc.
The processing of the ramie fibers is similar to linen from flax Angelini and Tavarini, ; Bunsell, Nettle is the commonly grown herbaceous plant consists of 35—40 different species generally grown in Europe, Asia, Northern Africa, and North America Bacci et al. The plant usually grows up to 2 m in length, the leaves are soft and green which are 3—15 cm long.
The leaves and stems are generally hairy and have stinging hairs on them Cummings and Olsen, ; Fang et al. The fiber extraction is done by harvesting the plants during the flowering period. The fiber is extracted either by retting the stalks or by decorticating. The typical applications of nettle fibers are in the textile industry, bioenergy, animal housing, etc.
Nowadays attempts have been made to use the nettle fibers on an industrial scale Bacci et al. The pineapple plant is one of the abundantly cultivated plants which is easily available. The pineapple leaf fiber is crop waste after pineapple cultivation. It is a short tropical plant grows up to 1—2 m and the leaves are in cluster form consists of 20—30 leaves of about 6 cm wide. Approximately, 90— tons of pineapple leaves are grown per hectare.
Among the different natural fibers, pineapple leaf fibers show good mechanical properties. Pineapple leaf fibers are multicellular and lingo-cellulosic.
The fibers were extracted by hand using the scrapers Kengkhetkit and Amornsakchai, ; Laftah and Abdul Rahaman, ; Todkar and Patil, The various applications are in automobiles, textile, mats, construction, etc. The treated and surface-modified fibers are used for making conveyor belt cord, air-bag, advanced composites, etc. Paridah et al. The sisal is one of the most used natural fibers and Brazil is one of the largest producers of this fiber.
It is a species native to south Mexico consists of the rosette of leaves grows up to 1. The sisal produces about — commercially usable leaves in the life span of 6—7 years. The sisal fibers are having good range of mechanical properties and are used in the automotive industry, shipping industry for mooring small craft and handling cargo , civil constructions, used as fiber core of the steel wire cables of elevators, agricultural twine or baler twine, etc.
Mihai, ; Ramesh et al. The date palm is known as palm extensively grown for its fruit. The biodiversity of the date palm is all over the world comprising around 19 species with more than 5, cultivators all around the world Wales and Blackman, ; Alotaibi et al. The date palm trees Phoenix dactylifera L.
The date palm rachis and leaves are accumulated in large quantity after the harvesting of the date farm fruits every year in the farming lands of different countries. These fibers can be used as the potential cellulosic fiber sources.
These fibers from leaves and rachis can be used as the reinforcement for thermoplastic and thermosetting polymers. Some researchers have found ways to use the date palm fibers in the automotive application Alawar et al. Cotton belongs to the sub-tribe Hibisceae and family of Malvaceae is an important agricultural crop Elmogahzy and Farag,
Natural Fibers: Applications
Natural and organic fibers become more and more popular these years. Most of the people come to realize that nature, soft and healthy are the most important things of the textile. Hemp fiber is naturally one of the most environmentally friendly fibers and also the oldest.
Account Options Sign in. My library Help Advanced Book Search. Sustainability of Construction Materials. Elsevier , M04 29 - pages. Until recently, much of the development of building materials has predominantly focused on producing cheaper, stronger and more durable construction materials.
Biodegradable Matrices and Composites View all 17 Articles. The increase in awareness of the damage caused by synthetic materials on the environment has led to the development of eco-friendly materials. The researchers have shown a lot of interest in developing such materials which can replace the synthetic materials. As a result, there is an increase in demand for commercial use of the natural fiber-based composites in recent years for various industrial sectors. Natural fibers are sustainable materials which are easily available in nature and have advantages like low-cost, lightweight, renewability, biodegradability, and high specific properties. The sustainability of the natural fiber-based composite materials has led to upsurge its applications in various manufacturing sectors. In this paper, we have reviewed the different sources of natural fibers, their properties, modification of natural fibers, the effect of treatments on natural fibers, etc. We also summarize the major applications of natural fibers and their effective use as reinforcement for polymer composite materials. Material selection in design and manufacturing of a sustainable product plays a vital role in the field of engineering design.
Biocomposites for High-Performance Applications: Current Barriers and Future Needs Towards Industrial Development focuses on future research directions that will make biocomposites a successful player in the field of high-strength structural applications. Topics covered include: recent research activities from academia in the biocomposite research field, valuable thoughts and insights from biocomposite manufacturing industries, the strength and weaknesses of biocomposite products, and the practical issues that need to be addressed to reach the next level. Her main research interests are polymer composites with a special focus on biofibres, biopolymers and biocomposites. She has been the author of more than 60 papers in peer-reviewed international journals, over 30 conference proceedings and has written 9 chapters in books.
Handbook of Ecomaterials pp Cite as. Increasing environmental awareness leads to further research and investigation for new eco-friendly materials. The need for green and renewable materials has never been as prevalent as it currently is and undoubtedly there is increasing interest in materials demonstrating efficient use of renewable resources. Due to the challenges of petroleum-based products and the need to find renewable solutions, more and more companies are looking at natural fiber composite materials.
Construction Materials Reinforced with Natural Products
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Jute is a long, soft, shiny vegetable fiber that can be spun into coarse, strong threads. It is produced primarily from plants in the genus Corchorus , which was once classified with the family Tiliaceae , and more recently with Malvaceae. The primary source of the fiber is Corchorus olitorius , but it is considered inferior to Corchorus capsularis. Jute is one of the most affordable natural fibers , and second only to cotton in the amount produced and variety of uses. Jute fibers are composed primarily of the plant materials cellulose and lignin. It falls into the bast fiber category fiber collected from bast, the phloem of the plant, sometimes called the "skin" along with kenaf , industrial hemp , flax linen , ramie , etc.
Finish Manufacturing Processes are those final stage processing techniques which are deployed to bring a product to readiness for marketing and putting in service. Over recent decades a number of finish manufacturing processes have been newly developed by researchers and technologists. Many of these developments have been reported and illustrated in existing literature in a piecemeal manner or in relation only to specific applications. For the first time, Comprehensive Materials Finishing integrates a wide body of this knowledge and understanding into a single, comprehensive work. These include applicability, energy and technological costs as well as practicability of implementation.
In ancient Egypt some 3 years ago, clay was reinforced by straw to build walls. Later on, the natural fibre lost much of its interest. Other more durable construction materials like metals were introduced.
Fibers derived from bio-based sources such as vegetables and animal origin are termed as natural fibers. This definition includes all natural cellulosic fibers cotton, jute, sisal, coir, flax, hemp, abaca, ramie, etc. There are also man-made cellulose fibers e. Natural fibers being cost effective and abundantly available yields high potential in various industrial and commercial applications such as in the interior applications of the passenger cars, panels for partition and false ceiling, partition boards, roof tiles, coir fibers in packaging, furniture applications, as insulating materials in low energy houses, geo-textiles for soil protection and erosion control, enhancing barrier properties, composites etc.
Due to the high amounts of waste generated from the building industry field, it has become essential to search for renewable building materials to be applied in wider and more innovative methods in architecture. One of the materials with the highest potential in this area is natural fibre-reinforced polymers NFRP , which are also called biocomposites , and are filled or reinforced with annually renewable lignocellulosic fibres. Throughout this paper, this discussion will be illustrated through a number of developments and mockups fabricated from newly developed lignocellulosic-based biocomposites from both bio-based and non-bio-based thermoplastic and thermoset polymers.
The book presents emerging economic and environmentally friendly lignocellulosic polymer composites materials that are free from side effects studied in the traditional synthetic materials. Vijay Kumar Thakur , Ph. He also member of scientific bodies around the world. In his academic career, he published more than research articles, patent and conference proceedings in the field of polymers and materials science.
A biocomposite is a composite material formed by a matrix resin and a reinforcement of natural fibers . These kind of materials often mimic the structure of the living materials involved in the process keeping the strengthening properties of the matrix that was used, but always providing biocompatibility. The matrix phase is formed by polymers derived from renewable and nonrenewable resources. The matrix is important to protect the fibers from environmental degradation and mechanical damage, to hold the fibers together and to transfer the loads on it. The interest in biocomposites is rapidly growing in terms of industrial applications automobiles , railway coach , aerospace , military applications, construction , and packaging and fundamental research, due to its great benefits renewable, cheap, recyclable , and biodegradable.
Northern Book Centre Bolero Ozon. The International Jute Commodity System. Chhabilendra Roul. The jute commodity system as prevalent in the Indian subcontinent is a conglomeration of paradoxes.