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Plant commercial industrial crops

Plant commercial industrial crops

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Handbook of Industrial Crops

Ukraine agriculture has been evolving since it achieved independence in , following the breakup of the Soviet Union. State and collective farms were officially dismantled in Farm property was divided among the farm workers in the form of land shares and most new shareholders leased their land back to newly-formed private agricultural associations.

The sudden loss of State agricultural subsidies had an enormous effect on every aspect of Ukrainian agriculture. The contraction in livestock inventories that had begun in the late 's continued and intensified. Fertilizer use fell by 85 percent over a ten-year period, and grain production by 50 percent. Farms were forced to cope with fleets of aging, inefficient machinery because no funds were available for capital investment.

At the same time, however, the emergence from the Soviet-style command economy enabled farmers to make increasingly market-based decisions regarding crop selection and management, which contributed to increased efficiency in both the livestock and crop-production sectors. Difficulty in obtaining credit, especially large, long-term loans, remains a significant problem for many farms.

The climate of Ukraine is roughly similar to that of Kansas: slightly drier and cooler during the summer and colder and wetter during the winter, but close enough for comparison. The weather is suitable for both winter and spring crops. Average annual precipitation in Ukraine is approximately millimeters 24 inches , including roughly millimeters during the growing season April through October.

Amounts are typically higher in western and central Ukraine and lower in the south and east. Of Ukraine's total land area of 60 million hectares, roughly 42 million is classified as agricultural land, which includes cultivated land grains, technical crops, forages, potatoes and vegetables, and fallow , gardens, orchards, vineyards, and permanent meadows and pastures.

Winter wheat, spring barley, and corn are the country's main grain crops. Sunflowers and sugar beets the main technical, or industrial, crops. Agricultural land use has shifted significantly since Ukraine declared independence from the Soviet Union in Between and , sown area dropped by about 5 percent, from Forage-crop area plunged by nearly 40 percent, concurrent with a steep slide in livestock inventories and feed demand.

Wheat is grown throughout the country, but central and south-central Ukraine are the key production zones. About 95 percent of Ukraine wheat is winter wheat, planted in the fall and harvested during July and August of the following year. On the average, approximately 15 percent of fall-planted crops fail to survive the winter.

The amount of winterkill varies widely from year to year, from 2 percent in to a staggering 65 percent in , when a persistent ice crust smothered the crop. Wheat yield declined during the 's following the breakup of the Soviet Union and the loss of heavy State subsidies for agriculture. Farms struggled with cash shortages, and the use of fertilizer and plant-protection chemicals plummeted.

Ukraine produces chiefly hard red winter wheat bread wheat , and in a typical year roughly 80 percent of domestic wheat output is considered milling quality, by Ukrainian standards. Feed consumption of wheat dropped sharply during the 's, from over 12 million tons to less than 5 million. Meanwhile, food consumption has remained steady at around 10 million tons.

Barley has been the top feed grain in Ukraine for most of the past ten years in terms of consumption , surpassing wheat in the early 's. Spring barley accounts for over 90 percent of barley area, and the main production region is eastern Ukraine. Spring barley is typically planted in April and harvested in August, and is the crop most frequently used for spring reseeding of damaged or destroyed winter-grain fields.

Area is inversely related, to some degree, to winter wheat area. Winter barley is the least cold-tolerant of the winter grains, and production is limited to the extreme south. The increasing demand for malt from the brewing industry has led to a jump in malting barley production and the import of high-quality planting seed from the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Germany, and France.

Consumption of barley for malting purposes has surpassed , tons, but still accounts for only 5 percent of total barley consumption.

Increased production -- specifically, three bumper harvests since -- and diminishing domestic demand for feed grains have contributed to a jump in Ukrainian wheat and barley exports. The boom in exports was fueled also by relatively low production costs and the reduction or elimination of price controls and export restrictions in Corn is the third important feed grain in Ukraine.

Planted area has increased despite several impediments: obsolete and inadequate harvesting equipment, high cost of production specifically post-harvest drying expenses , and pilferage. The main production region is eastern and southern Ukraine, although precipitation amounts in some oblasts in the extreme south are too low to support corn production. Corn is typically planted in late April or early May. Harvest begins in late September and is usually nearing completion by early November.

Only 25 to 50 percent of total corn area is harvested for grain; the rest is cut for silage, usually in August. The USDA corn estimates refer to corn for grain only. Corn is used chiefly for poultry and swine feed, and production and consumption have risen since concurrent with a rebound in poultry inventories.

Russia and Belarus are the chief destinations for Ukrainian corn exports. Sunflowerseed is Ukraine's chief oilseed crop. Production is concentrated in the southern and eastern oblasts. Sunflowers are typically planted in April and harvested from mid-September to mid-October. Because of a combination of high price, relatively low cost of production, and traditionally high demand, sunflowerseed has become one of the most consistently profitable crops.

Its high profitability fueled a significant expansion in planted area beginning in the late 's. Many farmers in Ukraine abandoned the traditional crop-rotation practices recommended by agricultural officials which called for planting sunflowers no more than once every seven years in the same field.

The aim of the 1-in-7 rotation is to prevent soil-borne fungal diseases and reduce the depletion of soil moisture and fertility. Because of their deep rooting system, sunflowers reportedly extract higher amounts of water and nutrients from the soil than do other crops in the rotation.

Sugar beets are grown primarily in central and western Ukraine. Beets are planted in late April and early May and harvested from mid-September through the end of October. Production has been on the decline since the early 's due chiefly to low profitability compared to grains and sunflowerseed.

Between and , planted area declined by 50 percent to less than 0. Large farms are sometimes encouraged by the local administrators to plant sugar beets not so much to make money but rather to provide a social safety net or to supplement to pensioners or farm workers. A family may be responsible for weeding a specific section of a field and the workers in turn receive 20 percent of the sugar processed from the beets harvested from its section.

On private household plots, meanwhile, sugar beet area has increased. Sugar beet production requires a significant amount of hand labor and remains a viable option for small household farms with limited access to agricultural machinery. Household plots now account for approximately 25 percent of Ukrainian sugar beet output compared to only 3 percent in See attache report: Sugar Annual , April Farms in Ukraine employ a variety of crop-rotation schemes, some including four or more crops, some only two.

A six-year crop rotation in the winter grain region will often include two consecutive years of wheat and one season of "clean fallow," during which no crop is sown. The chief reason for including fallow in the rotation is to replenish soil-moisture reserves, and it is more widely used in southern eastern Ukraine where drought is not uncommon.

A typical crop sequence might be: fallow, winter wheat, winter wheat, sunflowers, spring barley, and corn. Wheat almost always follows fallow. According to farm directors, this enables the wheat -- which is typically the priority crop -- to benefit from the reduced weed infestation.

Fields are cultivated several times during the fallow season. Some crop rotations include several consecutive years of a forage crop. An example of such a rotation would be: fallow, two years of winter wheat, and four years of perennial forage. The perennial forage is usually alfalfa; farmers will get three to four cuttings per year, five if the crop is irrigated. A typical seven-year rotation might be: winter wheat, winter barley, sugar beets, winter wheat, winter barley, sunflowers, and corn.

The vast majority of field crops, including grains, sunflowers, and sugar beets, are not irrigated. Traditionally, irrigation is used only on forage crops and vegetables. Roughly 5 percent of grains and 10 percent of potatoes, vegetables, and forage crops are irrigated.

During the final years of the Soviet era, winter wheat was the focus of the so-called intensive technology movement, which was marked by the use of improved varieties and the increased application of fertilizer and plant-protection chemicals.

Yields climbed in response to the enhanced management practices. The intensive technology program fizzled during the early 's, however, when the collapse of the Soviet Union marked an end to heavy State subsidies for agriculture and farms were forced to struggle with crippling cash shortages, a crumbling agricultural infrastructure, and skyrocketing fertilizer prices.

According to official statistics, the fertilizer application rate for wheat plunged from kilograms per hectare in when fertilizer was excessively and wastefully applied to 24 kilograms in The application rate for corn dropped even more sharply. Fertilizer use has increased modestly since Rates are still significantly below recommended amounts, but wheat yields have rebounded since except for the weather-related crop disaster of due to a combination of favorable weather and improved crop-management practices on the large agricultural enterprises.

There is no shortage of mineral fertilizers or plant-protection chemicals in Ukraine. Any inputs that a farmer needs can be obtained if the farm has money or can get credit. The high price of imported herbicides and fungicides has caused some farmers to cut back on their use, or to use less expensive and less effective domestic products.

Farmers still rely to a large degree on mechanical weed control. In the late 's, the Ukrainian winter wheat harvest could be finished in roughly three weeks. Harvest now takes twice as long to complete, and both yield and grain quality suffer as a result of the delays.

Farm managers estimate that 10 to 20 percent of the standing crop is typically lost due to outdated, inefficient machinery. Custom combining is available, but operators charge 20 to 25 percent of the crop in exchange for their services. Farmers must weigh custom-combining charges against potential harvest losses, and most choose to harvest their own grain.

Another consideration for the farm director, in addition to cost, is that the harvest campaign provides work for the farm employees. Many farmers are compelled to sell grain shortly after harvest when prices typically are lowest. One of the main reasons is a shortage of on-farm storage capacity, especially following a good harvest.

This is a relic of the Soviet system, which was designed for immediate post-harvest shipment of grain to regional elevators. The need to repay short-term debts or to satisfy "payment-in-kind" arrangements is the second chief factor contributing to the untimely sale of grain i.

Industrial Crops Commercialization

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As a result, every solution must be tailored to meet the needs of an individual farmer in a specific field. This requires innovation and new ideas.

Jump to navigation. The technology used could help realise the full potential of this promising energy crop. Increasing the production and mobilisation of biomass is crucial for tackling climate change, ensuring food security, creating sustainable raw materials and diversifying energy resources. In particular, the development of industrial crops able to grow on marginal or unused lands is expected to play an important role in driving the transition from a fossil- to a bio-based economy.

Efficient on-site power supply

Enter your login details below. If you do not already have an account you will need to register here. Once production of your article has started, you can track the status of your article via Track Your Accepted Article. Papers concern both crop-oriented and bio-based materials from crops-oriented research, and should be of interest to an international Papers concern both crop-oriented and bio-based materials from crops-oriented research, and should be of interest to an international audience, hypothesis driven, and where comparisons are made statistics performed. The following are examples of research that fit within the scope of the journal. Benefits to authors We also provide many author benefits, such as free PDFs, a liberal copyright policy, special discounts on Elsevier publications and much more. Please click here for more information on our author services.

Hungary Agricultural Production: Value: AG: CO: Industrial Crops: Other Crops: Fibre Plants

Industrial agriculture is currently the dominant food production system in the United States. It's characterized by large-scale monoculture, heavy use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, and meat production in CAFOs confined animal feeding operations. The industrial approach to farming is also defined by its heavy emphasis on a few crops that overwhelmingly end up as animal feed, biofuels, and processed junk food ingredients. From its midth century beginnings, industrial agriculture has been sold to the public as a technological miracle. Its efficiency, we were told, would allow food production to keep pace with a rapidly growing global population, while its economies of scale would ensure that farming remained a profitable business.

Industrial crops can provide abundant renewable biomass feedstocks for the production of high added-value bio-based commodities i. Most are multipurpose crops offering the opportunity to follow a cascade biorefinery concept to produce value-added bioproducts and bioenergy, thus feeding the bio-based economy.

NCBI Bookshelf. Many of the initial international wildlife conservation efforts focused on attractive species of endangered mammals—the so-called charismatic megafauna. Although a number of these programs have proven to be extremely successful, the modus operandi was clearly not entirely applicable to the conservation of all organisms: "Save the Sedges! Furthermore, human existence is much more dependent on the plant kingdom than on animals.

Industrial crop

Molecular genetics of plants, molecular markers, genetic mapping, crop breeding for resistance to pathogens, marker-assisted breeding. Plant genetic resources, application of biotechnology in crop breeding and agriculture, mainly including rapeseed, wheat and soybean. Plant stress physiology and genetics, crops modelling, plant biochemistry, molecular biology, biotechnology. Molecular biology and genetics, plant breeding, plant tissue culture and transformation, molecular pathology.

An industrial crop , also called a non-food crop , is a crop grown to produce goods for manufacturing, for example of fibre for clothing, rather than food for consumption. Industrial crops is a designation given to an enterprise that attempts to raise farm sector income, and provide economic development activities for rural areas. Industrial crops also attempt to provide products that can be used as substitutes for imports from other nations. The range of crops with non-food uses is broad, but includes traditional arable crops like wheat , as well as less conventional crops like hemp and Miscanthus. Products made from non-food crops can be categorised by function:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Industrial oil crops-when will they finally deliver on their promise ?

Ukraine agriculture has been evolving since it achieved independence in , following the breakup of the Soviet Union. State and collective farms were officially dismantled in Farm property was divided among the farm workers in the form of land shares and most new shareholders leased their land back to newly-formed private agricultural associations. The sudden loss of State agricultural subsidies had an enormous effect on every aspect of Ukrainian agriculture. The contraction in livestock inventories that had begun in the late 's continued and intensified.

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Springer Shop Amazon. Von Mark V. Cruz , David A.

Ukraine: Agricultural Overview

As a researcher in this area since the s, I am one of many who have regularly pointed out the vast range of possible industrial oils that could be obtained from plants. Indeed it is now more than 15 years since I edited a book, optimistically entitled Designer Oil Crops VCH Publishing, Weinheim, Germany, , that described the brave new world of customized oil crops that could be bred or engineered for dozens of nonfood applications, from polymers to high-value cosmetics. However, as we approach the second decade of the 21st century, only a very few of these new oils have achieved any significant commercialization. The purpose of this article is to briefly survey the near- to medium-term prospects for the industrial oil crops sector.

Industrial Crops and Products

Welcome to CRCPress. Please choose www. Your GarlandScience. The student resources previously accessed via GarlandScience.

Areas of buildings, in-door spaces, stables, garages, workshops, lay-by and storing areas of agricultural industry, often also bad land with ruderal vegetation, part of farms. Also includes agricultural buildings associated with collectivisation of agriculture.

Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. The United States has abundant forests and croplands, favorable climates, accessible capital, and sophisticated technologies for a strong biobased industry. As agriculture productivity and silviculture productivity continue to increase, more biomass will be available to support a biobased industry. Advances in biotechnology will keep a continuous supply of new crops flowing into the marketplace.

Masters of magic: using marginal lands for growing industrial crops

This records a decrease from the previous number of The data reached an all-time high of B Agricultural Production Value. Try Now Explore our Data. Last Width Height Keep live. Freeze timeline.

Handbook of Industrial Crops

The consortium consists of 22 partners from universities, agricultural companies and industry. The project is coordinated by the University of Hohenheim in Stuttgart Germany. It is primarily The private project partners are contributing the remaining 2.

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