Plant commercial nutmeg
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In vitro propagation of Nutmeg, Myristica Fragrans Houtt
Section II - Nutmeg cultivation. Contents - Previous - Next. Propagation 2. Planting 3. Pruning 4. Fertilizing 5. Irrigation 6. Weed control 7. Pest, diseases and their control 8. Cultivation practice. Two methods have been predominantly used for propagating nutmeg plants in Grenada. There were the seedling method and the vegetative method.
Traditionally, small farmers have used "volunteer plants" as seedlings for planting. These seedlings have their origin from fallen seeds that have germinated and grown in and around the parent plant. The farmers may use seedlings at two stages of development, the young undeclared plants, plants which have not flowered, or the more mature declared plants, which have flowered and thus the sex could be identified.
In the latter instance plants that produced female flowers and then fruits will be selected. Nutmegs are usually propagated by fresh seeds with their testa still attached. Seeds where the kernel rattle in the shell and old seeds will not germinate.
In shaded nurseries the selected seeds are sown 2. Germination takes about one month or more. After two to three months the plants average about 15 cm in height. They are then transferred to baskets or plastic perforated bags. At six months they may be transplanted to the field but usually they are left for up to twelve or twenty four months photograph 12a. As regards seed germination it has been observed that there was a rapid decline in percentage germination if seeds are planted later than three days after harvest.
Removal or scarring of the shell facilitated germination. Also there was some connection between monthly yield by the parent tree and the level of germination. Higher germination percentages were evident for seeds taken from plants with high monthly yields. Following the ravishes of hurricane lanes in , which completely or partially destroyed most of the nutmeg tree population nation wide, investigation into the vegetative propagation of nutmeg was initiated.
Two methods emerged and were established in commercial approach-grafting and marcotting. Nicols and Cruickshank, ; Cruickshank, The later, however, became the preferred method in Grenada.
In approach-grafting for seedlings, with the diameter of a pencil 0. This seedling stock is approached - grafted to a twig of similar thickness "scion" on a female tree. The procedure was the removal of very thin sections of bark about 28 cm long, on both stock and scion. These were securely tied and bound together with clear budding tape.
After about four months the grafts unite and the scion is severed below the union. The plants are repotted in a rich potting mixture soil, compost, river sand, in the proportion and placed in closed concrete hardening bins and hardened off by gradually lifting the bin covers until they are fully exposed. In marcotting or air-layering, vigorous healthy branches, 1. The branch is split in the middle longitudinally for 5 cm at a distance of 90 cm from the terminal growth.
A bamboo or wooden splint is placed on the back of the split and tied firmly at both ends with plastic tape, string not used to avoid rotting.
A portion of the split branch mm long is then removed on the lower side of the split with secateurs. The cut end is lifted and a splint of hard wood is inserted to keep the split open. The section is then dusted with rooting stimulant such as seradix L Moist peat moss, sawdust or coconut coir dust are applied around the split, extending above and below the incision for 5 and 10 cm respectively. Such a medium was kept in place by polyethene sheeting, tied around the branch and secured with plastic tape.
Roots occur after 4 - 18 months. Once rooting is adequate the plant is severed from the tree and potted, after removal of polyethene sheeting. The plants are kept in closed concrete bins covered with clear plastic and watered thrice daily for a period of 6 8 weeks.
The plants are then hardened off by lifting the bin covers until they are fully exposed. This is done for a period of two to three months. By the Ministry of Agriculture had reported that about 37 thousand marcots were used to cover an area of about acres ha. Further, it must be noted that in and later, nutmeg seeds were imported from Malaysia and seedlings from this stock have been planted in many nutmeg fields. Although on an average the nut and mace of the Malayan fruits tend to be smaller than the regular nutmeg plants grown in Grenada, very interestingly in the Malayan population there is a very small proportion of unisexual male trees when propagated from seedlings.
The common practice before planting young nutmeg trees was to preestablish shade, windbreak and soil conservation programmes. Banana was commonly selected as the crop of choice to provide temporary shade for young nutmeg plants. However, nutmegs have also been interplanted with cocoa photograph 12b. The young plants are set in the holes and staked with wooden stakes.
Plants are spaced on an average 9 m apart. Shade plants are usually gradually reduced from after the second year and by the seventh year may be completely removed. Marcots may begin flowering as early as three to four years. When the planting material is undeclared seedlings the common practice is to plant three seedlings at a planting site, 60 cm apart in the form of an equilateral triangle.
Shade crops are used as in the case of marcots. The shade requirements for transplants are:. Shade should be reduced gradually so as to minimize shock. At the first flowering usually at years, the male plants are destroyed leaving one female per planting site. Some farmers may leave a few male trees in the field to encourage cross-pollination.
This practice is declining. However, no studies have been reported that show the correlation between presence of male flowering trees and the quantity and quality of fruits and seeds that are produced by the female plant. For the establishment of larger declared seedlings, the practice is to prepare the planting hole well in advance. The hole size will be proportional to the size of plant and the soil mass that will be removed with it for transplanting. Once the plant is selected, the soil around the plant is cut in stages, one side at a time to a level just below the root and a distance from the stem of about cm.
The staged cutting afford the roots time to heal. Usually, on a wet day the young plant is removed with as much soil as possible, carefully transferred to the prepared hole covered with manured mixed soil and securely staked. Such plants will just continue flowering and fruiting. Usually trees come into full bearing at about years and continue at that level for another 30 40 years. It has been reported that trees above this age start registering progressive productivity drops.
The earlier trees from marcotting and the introduced Malayan plants are just now over 30 years so that their productivity levels at older ages is not yet known. Trees from Marcots always tend to show more lateral spread than increase in height, a condition that necessitates pruning.
The population of nutmeg trees in Grenada is estimated at about thousand made up of a mixture of trees from the original Banda stock, the more recently introduced Malayan extract with plants propagated from seedlings, marcotting or approach grafting.
Although the majority of trees may be under 40 years, there are some years and over that are still productive. Pruning is recognized and considered a good practice to maintain or increase flower, fruit and seed production. This envolves the removal of water shoots and upright branches within the plant, dead wood, cutting back of lower branches and the defining of an individual plant so that it does not become shaded by neighboring plants in a canopy. Two year old nutmeg seedlings at Ashenden Propagation Station Photo.
Six year old nutmeg seedling interplanted with banana and cocoa Photo. Nutmeg leaves with leaf shot. It has been observed that farmers tend to prune more completely and regularly when the financial returns for nutmeg and mace are high. At other times pruning is neglected and certain farmers advance the argument, more branches more fruits.
Young nutmeg trees volunteers were often cut and used for making swizzle sticks. This was so because of the morphology of the stem and branches; whorled branches and a periodic stem growth. It is not the practice to fertilize nutmeg plants in Grenada. However, since nutmeg plants are usually intercropped with banana or cocoa it is said that nutmeg trees inherit the spill off. There exists no tested trial information on fertilizer use in nutmegs.
Some trials were planned, and even attempted but the results were inconclusive Cruickshank, Again most farmers attitude is that the trees are doing well in production without fertilizer, so applications may only exhaust the trees.
According to Buckmire the suggested regime of fertilizer application is as shown below, this is rarely followed as most farmers avoid the use of fertilizer. The nutmeg plant requires well drained soil with good water retention properties but no water logging. Most nutmegs are grown on hillsides and in most nutmeg growing areas the soils are either Capitol or Belmont Clay loam.
Both of these soils are moderate to well drained yet affording good water retention. Irrigation is therefore not practiced in nutmeg fields.
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Nutmeg is the seed or ground spice of several species of the genus Myristica. It is also a commercial source of an essential oil and nutmeg butter. The California nutmeg, Torreya californica , has a seed of similar appearance, but is not closely related to Myristica fragans , and is not used as a spice. If consumed in amounts exceeding its typical use as a spice, nutmeg powder may produce allergic reactions , cause contact dermatitis , or have psychoactive effects.
Author: Andrew T. In his search for varied experience and escape from everyday boredom, man has found many substances of plant origin that poison the human organism but that, at the same time, cause pleasurable physical or mental changes. The word "narcotic" technically denotes a stupor-inducing drug, but it has been loosely applied to many of these deliberately-consumed substances. Narcotics are used regularly in nearly all parts of the world, and three observations about these practices are relevant to this paper.
In these early days of the holiday season, as cooks begin sifting through recipes rich in spice and sugar, consider this small warning from toxicologists: Measure your nutmeg carefully. Of all the well-loved seasonal spices, nutmeg stands out for its long and slightly twisted history. In the Middle Ages, it was used to end unwanted pregnancies. More recently, desperate prisoners embraced it as a rather miserable drug substitute. So, on occasion, have teenagers, some of whom wound up at poison control centers. A couple of years ago, a man in Sweden claimed that nutmeg had induced him to spit at strangers on the street. As Dr. Nutmeg is the seed of an evergreen tree, Myristica fragrans , native to Indonesia although now cultivated widely. The spice mace comes from a thin protective layer that encloses that seed. The spice trade first brought nutmeg to Europe in the 12th century, where it rapidly gained a reputation as a seed of unusual potency, strong enough to fight infection including the Black Plague , stimulating enough to bring on menstruation, poisonous enough to induce an abortion.
Cookbook Recipes Ingredients Spices and herbs. Nutmeg and mace are two spices derived from the same plant, the nutmeg tree Myristica fragrans. The nutmeg tree is indigenous to the Banda Islands of Indonesia but is also grown in the Caribbean e. Several commercial products are produced from the nutmeg tree, nutmeg and mace being the best known. Nutmeg is the actual seed of the tree, roughly egg-shaped and about an inch long, while mace is the dried "lacy", reddish covering of the seed.
The nutmeg tree is a large evergreen tree spice belonging to Myristicaceae family and grows to a height of about 18 m. It produces fruits eight to nine years after planting. The fruit of nutmeg tree, which is similar in colour and size to apricot, splits when ripe revealing the brilliant red arils encasing the brown nut. The red arils on drying become orange in colour and are the mace of commerce.
The use of nutmeg as a psychotropic agent
Myristica fragrans Houtt. Nutmeg is only known from cultivation but it most probably originated in Indonesia from the southern Moluccan Islands, especially Ambon and Banda. Nutmeg and mace the dried aril spread from there and became known throughout South East Asia. The first record in Europe, in Constantinople, dates from AD.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Budding of a NUTMEG PLANT 1
Many edible plants considered exotic in the Western world are actually quite mainstream in other cultures. While some of these plants are only encountered in ethnic food markets or during travels to foreign lands, many are now finding their way onto supermarket shelves. Top Exotic Food Plants provides comprehensive coverage of tropical and semitropical food plants, reviewing scientific and technological information as well as their culinary uses. A user-friendly format enables readers to easily locate information on botanical and agricultural aspects, economic and social importance, food uses, storage, preparation, and potential toxicity. The book also contains an introductory chapter that reviews important historical, economic, geopolitical, health, environmental, and ethical considerations associated with exotic food plants. Thoroughly referenced with more than literature citations, this book is enhanced by more than drawings, many chosen from historical art of extraordinary quality.
An exotic spice with a warm, sweet perfume and earthy flavor, nutmeg is a familiar ingredients in cookies, cakes and eggnog. The Dutch, who ruled over the islands, massacred native planters and destroyed farms in a campaign to dominate the spice trade and foil the British. Today, nutmeg is cultivated on commercial farms in tropical regions and is readily available in grocery stores worldwide. Nutmeg is the seed of the Myristica fragrans tree, an evergreen that is native to the Moluccas, or Spice Islands, in modern Indonesia. When fresh, the nutmeg fruit is pear-shaped and light cream or yellow. The central seed of the fruit is small, dark brown, round or oval, and encased in a red, lacy covering called an aril. The seed and aril are separated and dried.
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Processing of Nutmeg and Mace (Practical Action Brief)
The first commercial plantations were in Granada. The Tree yields two spices, nutmeg which is the kernel of the seed, and mace which is the net like crimson coloured leathery outer growth aril covering he shell of the seed. Nutmeg and mace are the fruits of a spreading evergreen tree that grows to a height of 20m.
A Warning on Nutmeg
Today, we discuss the nutmeg cultivation project report which can include the cost of cultivation of nutmeg, the profit of nutmeg farming , and yield of nutmegs per acre. Based on the nutmeg cultivation income, you can decide to go with it or not. Nutmeg cultivation in India: Nutmeg cultivation in India is a hugely profitable business for the nutmeg farmers. Nutmeg is the spice and plantation crop that is grown for the seed purpose.
Nutmeg , Myristica fragrans , tropical evergreen tree family Myristicaceae and the spice made of its seed. The tree is native to the Moluccas , or Spice Islands, of Indonesia and is principally cultivated there and in the West Indies. The spice nutmeg has a distinctive pungent fragrance and a warm slightly sweet taste; it is used to flavour many kinds of baked goods, confections, puddings, potatoes, meats, sausages, sauces, vegetables, and such beverages as eggnog. The fleshy arils surrounding the nutmeg seed are the source of the spice mace. Historically, grated nutmeg was used as a sachet, and the Romans used it as incense.
Section III - Post harvest handling. Contents - Previous - Next. Harvesting 2. Post harvest handling operations in the field - preparation for marketing to GCNA 3. Yield patterns 4. Handling operations in the receiving and processing station. The ripe or mature fruit splits open at the groove while still on the tree and the seed surrounded by the red aril falls to the ground after two days.
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