Plant ware wall, partition, binders and raw materials for them
Jonathan P. Hellerstein, Joel Bender, John G. Hadley and Charles M. Interestingly, not only do most of these sectors have roots in antiquity, but they also share a number of common general processes. For example, all are fundamentally based on the use of naturally occurring raw materials in powder or fine particulate form which are transformed by heat into the desired products.VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: PVC Partition Wall, Guard Room, Mobile Toilets - Cost Effective - Life Time Solution
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- US20020180117A1 - Honeycomb structure and process for manufacture thereof - Google Patents
- US9091197B2 - Honeycomb structural body - Google Patents
- US7083842B2 - Honeycomb structure and process for production thereof - Google Patents
- Materials are classified by. What is included in the concept of "general construction materials"
- Bagasse Board
US20020180117A1 - Honeycomb structure and process for manufacture thereof - Google Patents
Jonathan P. Hellerstein, Joel Bender, John G. Hadley and Charles M. Interestingly, not only do most of these sectors have roots in antiquity, but they also share a number of common general processes. For example, all are fundamentally based on the use of naturally occurring raw materials in powder or fine particulate form which are transformed by heat into the desired products.
Therefore, despite the range of processes and products encompassed in this group, these common processes allow a common overview of potential health hazards associated with these industries. Since the various manufacturing sectors are composed of both small, fragmented segments e. There are common safety and health hazards encountered in manufacturing of products in these business sectors. The hazards and control measures are discussed in other sections of the Encyclopaedia.
Process-specific hazards are discussed in the individual sections of this chapter. Most of the industrial manufacturing processes receive dry solid raw materials in bulk form or individual bags. Bulk solid raw materials are unloaded from hopper rail cars or over-the-road trucks into bins, hoppers or mixers by gravity, pneumatic transfer lines, screw conveyors, bucket conveyors or other mechanical transfer. Pallets of bagged raw materials 20 to 50 kg or large bulk fabric bag containers 0.
Individual bags or raw materials are removed from pallets manually or with powered lift assists. Bagged raw materials are typically charged into a bag dumping station or directly into storage hoppers or scale hoppers. Potential safety and health hazards associated with the solid raw material unloading, handling and transfer processes include:.
Pneumatic vibrators, compressors, valve actuators, mixing drive motors, blowers, and dust collectors are some major noise sources. Exposures depend on composition of raw materials but may commonly include silica SiO 2 , clay, alumina, limestone, alkaline dusts, metal oxides, heavy metals and nuisance particulate.
Manufacturing products in these business sectors involves drying, melting or firing processes in kilns or furnaces. Potential hazards presented from firing or melting processes include:. Back-up or stand-by fuel systems in-frequently used for natural gas curtailments can present similar fire or explosion concerns. The working environment around furnaces or kilns can be extremely hot. Significant heat stress problems can occur when emergency repair work or routine maintenance is performed near or above firing or melting processes.
Severe thermal burns can result from direct skin contact with hot surfaces or molten materials see figure Direct contact with high-voltage electric energy used for resistance heating to supplement fuel-fired processes presents an electrocution hazard and possible health concerns about exposure to electromagnetic fields EMF. Strong magnetic and electric fields can potentially interfere with pacemakers and other implanted medical devices.
Material-handling, fabrication and packaging processes differ to a large extent in this business sector, as do the size, shape and weights of products. The high density of materials in this sector or bulky configurations present common material-handling hazards. Manual lifting and material handling in production, fabrication, packaging and warehousing in this industry accounts for many disabling injuries. Injury reduction efforts are focusing on reducing manual lifting and material handling.
For example, innovative packaging designs, robotics for stacking and palletizing finished products, and automatic guided transport vehicles for warehousing are starting to be used in select parts of this business sector to eliminate manual material handling and associated injuries.
Use of conveyors, manned lift assists e. Owens Corning. The use of robotics to eliminate manual material handling is playing a major role in prevention of ergonomic injuries. Robotics has reduced ergonomic stresses and severe laceration injuries that have been historically associated with material handling e. However, increased utilization of robotics and process automation introduces moving machinery and electric power hazards, which transforms the types of hazards and also transfers risks to other workers from production to maintenance workers.
Proper designs of electronic controls and logic sequencing, machine guards, total energy lockout practices and establishing safe operating and maintenance procedures are fundamental ways to control injuries to maintenance and production workers. Numerous potential health and safety hazards are encountered during periodic major rebuilds or cold repairs to furnaces or kilns. A wide range of hazards associated with construction activities may be encountered. Examples include: ergonomic hazards with material handling e.
Obsidian, for instance, is a naturally occurring combination of oxides fused by intense volcanic heat and vitrified made into a glass by rapid air cooling. Its opaque, black colour comes from the relatively high amounts of iron oxide it contains. Its chemical durability and hardness compare favourably with many commercial glasses. Glass technology has evolved for 6, years, and some modern principles date back to ancient times. The origin of the first synthetic glasses is lost in antiquity and legend.
Faience was made by the Egyptians, who molded figurines from sand SiO 2 , the most popular glass-forming oxide. The copper oxide gave the article an appealing blue colour. A most important development in glass technology was the use of a blow pipe see figure From then onwards, there was a rapid development in the technique of manufacturing glass.
Urban Glass. The first glass was coloured because of the presence of various impurities such as oxides of iron and chromium. Virtually colourless glass was first made some 1, years ago. At that time glass manufacturing was developing in Rome, and from there it moved to many other countries in Europe. Many glass works were built in Venice, and an important development took place there.
In the 13th century, many of the glass plants were moved from Venice to a nearby island, Murano. Murano is still a centre for the production of hand-made glass in Italy. By the 16th century, glass was made all over Europe. Now Bohemian glass from the Czech Republic is well known for its beauty and glass plants in the United Kingdom and Ireland produce high-quality lead crystal glass tableware.
Sweden is another country that is home to artistic glass crystalware production. In North America the first manufacturing establishment of any sort was a glass factory. English settlers started to produce glass at the beginning of the 17th century at Jamestown, Virginia.
Today glass is manufactured in most countries all over the world. Many products of glass are made in fully automatic processing lines. Although glass is one of the oldest materials, its properties are unique and not yet fully understood. The glass industry today is made up of several major market segments, which include the flat glass market, the consumer houseware market, the glass containers market, the optical glass industry and the scientific glassware market segment.
The optical and scientific glass markets tend to be very ordered and are dominated by one or two suppliers in most countries. These markets are also much lower in volume than the consumer-based markets. Each of these markets has developed over the years by innovations in specific glass technology or manufacturing advancements. The container industry, for example, was driven by the development of high-speed bottle-making machines developed in the early s. The flat glass industry was significantly advanced by the development of the float glass process in the early s.
Both of these segments are multi-billion-dollar businesses worldwide today. Depending upon the specific category, a variety of other materials compete for market share, including ceramics, metals and plastics.
Glass is an inorganic product of fusion which has cooled to a rigid condition without crystallizing. Glass is typically hard and brittle and has a conchoidal fracture. Glass may be manufactured to be coloured, translucent or opaque by varying the dissolved amorphous or crystalline materials that are present. When glass is cooled from the hot molten state, it gradually increases in viscosity without crystallization over a wide temperature range, until it assumes its characteristic hard, brittle form.
Cooling is controlled to prevent crystallization, or high strain. While any compound which has these physical properties is theoretically a glass, most commercial glasses fall into three main types and have a wide range of chemical compositions. Soda-lime-silica glasses are the most important glasses in terms of quantity produced and variety of use, including almost all flat glass, containers, low-cost mass-produced domestic glassware and electric light bulbs.
Lead-potash-silica glasses contain a varying but often high proportion of lead oxide. Optical glass manufacture makes use of the high refractive index of this type of glass; hand-blown domestic and decorative glassware makes use of its ease of cutting and polishing; electrical and electronic applications takes advantage of its high electrical resistivity and radiation protection. Borosilicate glasses have a low thermal expansion and are resistant to thermal shock, which makes them ideal for domestic oven and laboratory glassware and for glass fibre for plastic reinforcements.
A commercial glass batch consists of a mixture of several ingredients. However, the largest fraction of the batch is made up of from 4 to 6 ingredients, chosen from such materials as sand, limestone, dolomite, soda ash, borax, boric acid, feldspathic materials, lead and barium compounds. The remainder of the batch consists of several additional ingredients, chosen from a group of some 15 to 20 materials commonly referred to as minor ingredients.
These latter additions are added with a view to providing some specific function or quality, such as colour, which is to be realized during the glass preparation process. Figure The raw materials are weighed, mixed and, after the addition of broken glass cullet , taken to the furnace for melting. Small pots of up to 2 tonnes capacity are still used for the melting of glass for hand-blown crystalware and special glasses required in small quantity.
Several pots are heated together in a combustion chamber. In most modern manufacture, melting takes place in large regenerative, recuperative or electric furnaces built of refractory material and heated by oil, natural gas or electricity. Electric boosting and cold top electric melting were commercialized and became extensively utilized globally in the late s and s. The driving force behind cold top electric melting was emission control, while electric boosting was generally used in order to improve glass quality and to increase throughput.
The most significant economic factors concerning the use of electricity for glass furnace melting are related to fossil fuel costs, the availability of various fuels, electricity costs, capital costs for equipment and so on. However, in many instances the prime reason for the use of electric melting or boosting is environmental control.
Various locations worldwide either already have or are expected soon to have environmental regulations that strictly restrict the discharge of various oxides or particulate matter in general. Thus, manufacturers in many locations face the possibility of either having to reduce glass melting throughputs, install baghouses or precipitators in order to handle waste flue gases or modify the melting process and include electric melting or boost. The alternatives to such modification may in some cases be plant shutdowns.
In addition, all types of glass are subjected to further controlled cooling annealing in a special oven or lehr.
US9091197B2 - Honeycomb structural body - Google Patents
The invention relates to the manufacture of building materials and may be used for making wall and other building products, e. It can also be used for preparing batch mixtures, mortars and for other uses. For producing, lining brick, either monomineral clays or loams have to be used, or clayey raw material should be homogenized and stirred which calls for high energy consumption with rather bulky production equipment. Long duration of firing is necessary to ensure curing of the brick during several hours under conditions where the brick surface is heated to a temperature not above the upper limit of the sintering range and the points most distant from the surrface of the brick are heated to at least the lower limit of the sintering range.
Effective date : Year of fee payment : 4. Year of fee payment : 8. Year of fee payment :
US7083842B2 - Honeycomb structure and process for production thereof - Google Patents
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Materials are classified by. What is included in the concept of "general construction materials"
High parametric clocks for decoration and interior design. Various types: analog and digital, modern and antique style, wall hung and alarm. Whether used for vertical applications or as an accent to countertops, the Decorative Metals line is surprisingly adaptable and a virtually unbreakable addition to any commercial project. Choose from two unique, architectural options to add the perfect finishing touch to countertops, vanities, tables, and desks. Because they offer a totally tailored finish to any of our laminate surfaces, Decorative Edges can be a subtle, or not so subtle, completion to any environment.
Subsequent hot pressing i. Plural sintering steps having specified temperature e. Method for the powder-based additive manufacturing of a part, notably a lining blade for a tire mould, with an associated reinforcing element. Patent number:
Effective date : Year of fee payment : 4. There is disclosed a porous material which has an improved thermal shock resistance.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: 🔝 Top 10+ Best Partition Design Ideas - Living Room Wall Divider Partition Decor House 2018
Bagasse Board. It was invented by Armin Elmendorf in California in Graph showing the Impact strength of the different specimens The material impact strength is a factor of its ability to. The Co-generation facility burns bagasse during the sugar cane crushing season This executive level position reported directly to the Chairman of the Board, and held the responsibility for the profit and loss and day to day management of the operations and maintenance for the Rocky Point Sugar Mill co-generation facility. Some of the most common uses of bagasse are for pulp, feed, board, paper and fuel.
The scope of the report includes assessing market potential, negotiating with collaborators, investment decision making, corporate diversification planning etc. The DPR is prepared by highly qualified and experienced consultants and the market research and analysis are supported by a panel of experts and computerized data bank. Pesticides A Monochroto Phos 36 W. B Endosulfan 35 E. C Methyl Parathion 5 E.
The present invention relates to a honeycomb structure, which can be preferably used for, for example, a carrier for a catalyst having a catalytic function used in internal combustion engine, boiler, chemical reactor, reformer for fuel cell, etc. The present invention particularly relates to a honeycomb structure of which a position does not easily deviate by vibration during use of the honeycomb structure held in a can or the like, and a process for production of the honeycomb structure. Honeycomb structures are used as, for example, a catalyst carrier for an internal combustion engine, boiler, chemical reactor, fuel cell reformer, etc. This honeycomb structure is aimed to have a higher porosity, thinner partition walls, and a larger size in order to reduce a pressure loss and to enhance a treatment capability, and this direction degradates strength and dimensional precision of the honeycomb structure.
The present invention relates to a ceramic honeycomb structure and a method of producing the same, and more specifically to a ceramic honeycomb structure which is suited for a carrier for controlling exhaust gas emission of automobile, ensuring a good balance between emission control performance and durability and canning property of end face, and a method of producing the same. In ceramic honeycomb structural bodies widely used as a catalyst carrier and the like for emission control of exhaust gas, there is an increased need for improved emission control performance in order to comply with the emission regulations that have been tightened year by year, while reducing the pressure loss for satisfying the requests for fuel economy and high output. In such circumstances, the growing trend is to increase the porosity at an opening end of cells of the honeycomb structure by further reducing the thickness of partition walls of the honeycomb structure, thereby reducing the pressure loss, as well as to increase the emission control performance by ensuring immediate activation of the catalyst after startup of the engine by reducing the heat capacity of the partition walls.
The category of general construction materials includes a list of indispensable products that are widely used in various branches of construction. They are used in the construction of new objects and the reconstruction of existing ones, and therefore are extremely popular. General construction materials are the basic basis of any construction, therefore, they are subject to the most stringent requirements regarding durability, reliability, as well as service life.
Я пробовал, - прошептал Стратмор еле слышно. Ей еще не приходилось слышать, чтобы он так. - Что значит - пробовал. Стратмор развернул монитор так, чтобы Сьюзан было .
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Она нашла то, что искала, вернулась со справочником к своему терминалу, ввела несколько команд и подождала, пока компьютер проверит список команд, отданных за последние три часа. Сьюзан надеялась обнаружить внешнее воздействие - команду отключения, вызванную сбоем электропитания или дефектным чипом. Через несколько мгновений компьютер подал звуковой сигнал.