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Produce manufacturing reindeer and camel husbandry products

Produce manufacturing reindeer and camel husbandry products

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A review on camel brucellosis: a zoonosis sustained by ignorance and indifference

In many developing countries of Asia and Africa, camels are one of the most important sources of income for the nomadic population. With increasing urbanization, camel milk and meat have gained a wider market and commercialization and consumption of camel products are on the rise. Camel brucellosis can be encountered in all camel rearing countries with exception of Australia. High animal and herd prevalences have been reported from numerous countries, which not only pose a continuous risk for human infection, but also increase the spread of infection through uncontrolled trade of clinically inconspicuous animals.

This short review aims at providing an overview on diagnostic investigations, as well as the public health and economic impact of brucellosis in old world camels. With increasing urbanization, camel milk, a major component of the diet in many pastoralist societies, has gained a wider market and commercialization and consumption of camel milk is on the rise.

Camels are also an important part of local tradition and contribute to the local economy not only as a tourist attraction, but also as valuable racing animals. Camel racing is very popular in the countries of the Arabian Golf and North Africa and accompanied by active camel trading.

Although camels are hardy and undemanding in their maintenance, they are not resistant to diseases affecting other livestock, as frequently assumed in the past.

Camels are generally raised under very harsh and stressful conditions with regard to temperature, water availability, and nourishment and thus they are prone to develop serious health problems.

While brucellosis is most likely one of the oldest recognized diseases of mankind and under control in most developed countries, the containment of this zoonosis has been ignored elsewhere as it mostly affects the poor.

This attitude is short sighted since the resulting medical, veterinary, and socioeconomic problems are un foreseeable. Brucellae are Gram-negative, amotile, facultative intracellular coccobacilli or rods; the genus presently consists of 10 classified und 3 unclassified potential species, of which seven are pathogenic for humans Table 1.

The currently described Brucella species all belong to a single species, as DNA homology data have shown. However, the historic species definition was based primarily on host preference and phenotypic characteristics, i. Currently, this system is critically discussed. A species is described by the following parameters: colony morphology, agglutination with anti-S sera, lysis by different phages, oxidase and urease activity, and host preference.

Within the species, the biovars are defined by their requirement of CO 2 , H 2 S production, growth on dyes thionin, basic fuchsine and the agglutination with the monospecific sera A, M, and R. Recent approaches include genomic information e.

Note: MLVA: multiple-locus variable number of tandem repeats analysis; b. Brucella spp. Once in the blood stream, the organism disseminates to multiple organs, thereby displaying an affinity for reticuloendothelial tissues, such as liver, spleen, the skeletal, and hematopoietic system. The clinical picture of brucellosis in camels can vary from asymptomatic to abortion. Placental retention, infertility, and delayed sexual maturity have also been reported.

Although asymptomatic infections regularly occur in humans, this multisystemic disease frequently presents with a wide range of symptoms. It usually begins as an acute febrile disease with non specific flu-like symptoms, such as fever, headache, malaise, back pain, myalgia, drenching night sweats, and generalized ache. Undulant fever may develop which can last up to 12 months. Fatalities can be observed due to the development of endocarditis. Since many organs and tissues can be affected, a multitude of syndromes can result such as nephritis, dermatitis, vasculitis, lymphadenopathy, deep vein thrombosis, granulomatous hepatitis, osteomyelitis, and formation of abscesses in internal organs.

Congenital brucellosis can lead to preterm birth, with signs of septicaemia, but asymptomatic or cases with mild symptoms have also been reported. Whether brucellosis can lead to spontaneous abortion in humans is still a matter of debate www. Recent data on the prevalence of brucellosis in camels are relatively scarce, albeit several reviews have painstakingly summarized the numerous reports found in the literature. Diagnosing brucellosis by means of cultivation and phenotypic characterization is not only laborious and time consuming; it also poses a major risk of infection for the investigator.

Successful isolation or demonstration of the agent has been achieved by sampling lymphoid tissue, 19 aborted foetuses, vaginal swabs, 20 milk, 21 , 22 testes, 23 and infected joints.

Results gained from serological surveys and the conclusions drawn should, however, be regarded with caution, since the tests applied have been validated for their use in cattle only. The classical serological tests for detecting antibodies against Brucella spp. All three tests have their limitations regarding sensitivity, i.

Finally, it must be kept in mind that the serodiagnosis of Brucellosis is additionally impaired by the allegedly strong cross-reactivity between Brucella spp and Yersinia enterocolitica O:9 and other Gram-negative bacteria.

In a recent study, Gwida et al. Best results for detecting the presence of anti Brucella antibodies were obtained by the FPA Only In addition, this study also assessed the usefulness of a real-time PCR, targeting the genus specific Brucella cell surface salt extractable bcsp31 kDa protein gene, which was detectable in The authors therefore recommended the use of the FPA in combination with the real time PCR in developed countries, or conventional PCR with any of the commonly used serological tests in less developed countries.

Camel brucellosis caused by B. High animal and herd prevalences have been reported from numerous countries, which not only pose a continuous risk for human infection Table 3 , but also increase the spread of infection through uncontrolled trade of clinically inconspicuous animals. Several risk factors have been identified for camel brucellosis, these are at animal level: habitat, herd size, cohabitation with other ruminants, and contact with other camels, the latter indicating an intercamel cycle.

At herd level, the risk factors are herd size and cohabitation with other ruminants. However, the final proof by means of genotyping is still missing. Since camels suffer from lack of attention and negligence in numerous countries, the control of brucellosis in camels is severely hampered. Despite vaccination campaigns, B.

Numerous risk factors have been determined for human camel-derived brucellosis: consumption of unpasteurized camel milk and buttermilk 36 — 40 and unpasteurized dairy products, 36 , 41 camel ownership, 42 assistance during animal parturition 42 , 43 and the presence of further infected family members.

However, boiling of milk, irrespective of its origin, i. In times of increasing human population, more resources are needed and camels are an ideal asset.

Not only do they function as power suppliers drawing water, grinding wheat, ploughing, etc. By combining data on the years of life lost and years of life with disability the disability-adjusted life-years are calculated. The chronic nature of the disease and the difficulties arising when treating patients must also be taken into consideration when calculating costs to local health services.

Ignoring the impact of a zoonotic disease in a population comprising nearly 26 million animals with the ability to spread in to a human population encompassing approx.

Every effort should therefore be made to increase awareness of this disease in animal keepers, consumers of camel products, public and veterinary health authorities, and decision makers. We are indebted to H. Steinfeld FAO for providing us with additional data on camel meat production.

National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Pathog Glob Health v. Pathog Glob Health. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Correspondence to: L. Email: ed. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract In many developing countries of Asia and Africa, camels are one of the most important sources of income for the nomadic population. Aetiology and Clinical Findings Brucellae are Gram-negative, amotile, facultative intracellular coccobacilli or rods; the genus presently consists of 10 classified und 3 unclassified potential species, of which seven are pathogenic for humans Table 1.

Table 1 Currently described Brucella species and their zoonotic potential. Open in a separate window. Table 2 Brucella species isolated from old world camels.

Diagnostic Investigations Recent data on the prevalence of brucellosis in camels are relatively scarce, albeit several reviews have painstakingly summarized the numerous reports found in the literature. Epidemiology and Public Health Camel brucellosis caused by B. Country No. Economic Impact In times of increasing human population, more resources are needed and camels are an ideal asset. Acknowledgments We are indebted to H. References 1. Schwartz HJ, Dioli M.

Mammal species of the world. Abbas B, Agab H. A review of camel brucellosis. Prev Vet Med. Camel dairy in Somalia: limiting factors and developmental potential.

Livestock Sci. A review of the growth, and of the carcass and meat quality characteristics of the one-humped camel Camelus dromedarius. Meat Sci. Aklilu Y, Catley A. Shifting sands: the commercialisation of camels in Mid-altitude Ethiopia and beyond. Khalaf S. Camel racing in the Gulf. Intl Rev Anthr Ling.

First report on the isolation of Brucella abortus biovar 3 from camels Camelus dromedarius in Sudan. Camel Newslett. Brucellosis in camels in intensive animal breeding areas of Sudan. Implications in abortion and early-life infections. Rev Sci Tech. Pappas G. The changing Brucella ecology: novel reservoirs, new threats.

Can monetising camel products revive Rajasthan’s state animal?

Ever since the beginning of civilization, humans have depended on animals for many requirements, such as that of food milk, meat, and egg , clothing hide or wool , labour pulling, carrying the load and security, etc. Humans have consistently tried to improve the breeds of domesticated animals to make them more useful for them. The branch of agricultural science, which deals with the study of various breeds of domesticated animals and their management for obtaining better products and services from them is known as Animal Husbandry. Animal husbandry is essential to manage this gap between demand and supply of food and related products.

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In developing and under-developed counties, the secondary dairyspecies play a crucial role in supplying the food and nutritionalneeds of the people in those regions. Due to the unavailability ofcow milk and the low consumption of meat, the milks of minorspecies such as goat, buffalo, sheep, and camel are critical dailyfood sources of protein, phosphate and calcium. Furthermore,because of important and inherent hypoallergenic properties, milksof certain species such as goat milk have been recommended assubstitutes in diets for those with cow milk allergies. Editors Park and Haenlein have assembled dairy and nutritionexperts from around the world to contribute to the Handbook ofMilk of Non-Bovine Mammals. Secondary dairy species addressedare the goat, sheep, buffalo, mare, camel, yak, deer reindeer ,sow, llama, alpaca, moose, musk ox, caribou, ass, elk, pinniped,polar bear and human.

Dairy animals

Humans keep domesticated animals because they provide something of value. Important but frequently overlooked contributions include draft power, manure, fibers, hides and other by-products. Diets based on meat, eggs and dairy products contain proteins, carbohydrates, fats, minerals and vitamins present in appropriate amounts and readily digestible forms to meet all human nutritional requirements. In the past, animal protein was considered essential in human diets but recent knowledge suggests that this is not absolutely true. A highly diversified vegetarian diet can also provide all necessities but these may be obtained more readily through consumption of some animal products. It must be conceded, however, that most people enjoy eating meat and dairy products and do so by choice rather than through absolute necessity. Developed countries have about one-third of the world's livestock but these produce somewhere between two-thirds and three-quarters of all products that pass through organized markets. Thus, substantial disparity exists between regions in the relative contribution of plant and animal products towards satisfying human energy and protein requirements. Total global marketing of consumable livestock commodities continues to grow annually, as shown in the following figure. Much of this recent growth is due to substantial output increases for pork and poultry occurring each year in China and other southeast Asian countries.

Animal husbandry

In many developing countries of Asia and Africa, camels are one of the most important sources of income for the nomadic population. With increasing urbanization, camel milk and meat have gained a wider market and commercialization and consumption of camel products are on the rise. Camel brucellosis can be encountered in all camel rearing countries with exception of Australia. High animal and herd prevalences have been reported from numerous countries, which not only pose a continuous risk for human infection, but also increase the spread of infection through uncontrolled trade of clinically inconspicuous animals.

Animal husbandry is the branch of agriculture concerned with animals that are raised for meat , fibre , milk , eggs , or other products.

The farming of animals for meat and milk confronts a stark dilemma. While world demand from a growing and more affluent human population is increasing rapidly, there are strong counter-arguments that we should eat less meat and pay more attention to environmental protection, animal welfare and human health and well-being. The aim of this book is to identify and explain the causes and contributors to current problems in animal husbandry, especially those related to 'factory farming', and advance arguments that may contribute to its successful re-orientation. Husbandry is considered in its broadest sense, namely the productive and sustainable use of the land for the good of all plants, humans and other animals.

Table of Contents

Increased modernisation in the desert state such as roads and tractors has reduced the economic importance of camels. Camels were their prized assets. They provided mobility in the desert; were good draught animals; could survive continuous spells of hot and arid conditions; and, during drought and famine when other livestock perished, they offered nutritious milk. In fact, the Raikas recall that in , when large parts of Rajasthan was hit by a famine, people survived just by drinking camel milk.

SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Emirates Industry for Camel Milk and Products

The traditional view of the role of milk has been greatly expanded in recent years beyond the horizon of nutritional subsistence of infants: it is now recognized to be more than a source of nutrients for the healthy growth of children and nourishment of adult humans. Alongside its major proteins casein and whey , milk contains biologically active compounds, which have important physiological and biochemical functions and significant impacts upon human metabolism, nutrition and health. Many of these compounds have been proven to have beneficial effects on human nutrition and health. This comprehensive reference is the first to address such a wide range of topics related to milk production and human health, including: mammary secretion, production, sanitation, quality standards and chemistry, as well as nutrition, milk allergies, lactose intolerance, and the bioactive and therapeutic compounds found in milk. The Editors have assembled a team of internationally renowned experts to contribute to this exhaustive volume which will be essential reading for dairy scientists, nutritionists, food scientists, allergy specialists and health professionals. Professor Young W.

The Fact Factor

Humans depend upon animals for food and related by-products, work and a variety of other uses see table To meet these demands, they have domesticated or held in captivity species of mammals, birds, reptiles, fish and arthropods. These animals have become known as livestock, and rearing them has implications for occupational safety and health. This general profile of the industry includes its evolution and structure, the economic importance of different commodities of livestock, and regional characteristics of the industry and workforce. The articles in this chapter are organized by occupational processes, livestock sectors and consequences of livestock rearing. Livestock evolved over the past 12, years through selection by human communities and adaptation to new environments. Historians believe that goat and sheep were the first species of animals domesticated for human use. Then, about 9, years ago, humans domesticated the pig.

26 million animals, with a gross production value of million US$ for milk and high quality products; however, the majority of camel rearing countries simply.

Non-Bovine Milk and Milk Products presents a compiled and renewed vision of the knowledge existing as well as the emerging challenges on animal husbandry and non-cow milk production, technology, chemistry, microbiology, safety, nutrition, and health, including current policies and practices. Non-bovine milk products are an expanding means of addressing nutritional and sustainable food needs around the world. While many populations have integrated non-bovine products into their diets for centuries, as consumer demand and acceptance have grown, additional opportunities for non-bovine products are emerging. Understanding the proper chain of production will provide important insight into the successful growth of this sector.

The Fact Factor

World milk production is almost entirely derived from cattle, buffaloes, goats, sheep and camels. Other less common milk animals are yaks, horses, reindeers and donkeys. The presence and importance of each species varies significantly among regions and countries. The key elements that determine the dairy species kept are feed, water and climate.

Forage Crops Lorann Stallones. Livestock Confinement Kelley Donham. Animal Husbandry Dean T.

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For cow For sheep Spare parts o Sires of wash Dip cup Washing set p Washing gun Washing brush Washing liquid Products for

- У Стратмора стол ломится от заказов. Вряд ли он позволил бы ТРАНСТЕКСТУ простаивать целый уик-энд. - Хорошо, хорошо.  - Мидж вздохнула.  - Я ошиблась.  - Она сдвинула брови, задумавшись, почему ТРАНСТЕКСТ за весь день не взломал ни единого шифра.

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