Product manufacture communication and control equipment, systems and devices for emergency rescue op
The Internet of Things IoT is a system of interrelated computing devices, mechanical and digital machines, objects, animals or people that are provided with unique identifiers UIDs and the ability to transfer data over a network without requiring human-to-human or human-to-computer interaction. The definition of the Internet of Things has evolved due to the convergence of multiple technologies, real-time analytics , machine learning , commodity sensors , and embedded systems. In the consumer market, IoT technology is most synonymous with products pertaining to the concept of the "smart home", covering devices and appliances such as lighting fixtures, thermostats , home security systems and cameras, and other home appliances that support one or more common ecosystems, and can be controlled via devices associated with that ecosystem, such as smartphones and smart speakers. There are a number of serious concerns about dangers in the growth of IoT, especially in the areas of privacy and security , and consequently industry and governmental moves to begin to address these. The concept of a network of smart devices was discussed as early as , with a modified Coke vending machine at Carnegie Mellon University becoming the first Internet-connected appliance,  able to report its inventory and whether newly loaded drinks were cold or not. The field gained momentum when Bill Joy envisioned device-to-device communication as a part of his "Six Webs" framework, presented at the World Economic Forum at Davos inVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: What is RFID? How RFID works? RFID Explained in Detail
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A basic truth of nature is that all things change. Until this point, the Telecommunication Handbook for Transportation Professionals has looked at the planning and development of the communication system. Chapter 6 will discuss maintenance of telecommunication systems and look at issues that should be addressed by the operator of a system. The chapter provides information on the reasons for maintenance, technician qualifications, explanation of warranties, and typical cost of maintenance agreements.
Note: This chapter provides a focus on telecommunications equipment. Communication systems are made of physical things that wear out or change over time. It is difficult to see the change, because there are very few moving parts. However, the components transistors, capacitors, microprocessors, etc. When enough components operate at less than specification, the overall system or device will not perform as required.
Operationally speaking, there is not a huge difference between a freeway system and a communication network. Both wear out from use and require maintenance and revitalization. Communication networks should be treated as any other element of a modern transportation system. DOTs need to provide an adequate budget for maintenance, and training for personnel to become familiar with the elements of the communication equipment.
The DOT technicians don't have to be capable of repairing the communications equipment. They simply have to be able to determine when the communication hardware is not functioning, and in many cases replace the device with a spare. Most manufacturers provide a detailed manual of installation, testing and maintenance recommendations. Many provide on-site and factory depot service plans.
The use of these plans may be a critical part of your overall maintenance program. Systems maintenance and upgrade is crucial to efficient operations. All communication equipment does eventually wear out, or reach the end of useful operational life.
The communication system is the glue that unites the elements of a traffic signal, FMS, or ITS system, keep it operating with an efficient maintenance and upgrade program. Fifty years ago, communication equipment needed constant attention. The "state-of-the-art" used components that were highly sensitive to environmental variables heat, cold, moisture, dust, etc. Communication systems required significant adjustments by operations and maintenance personnel. All equipment was manufactured with external controls that were used to adjust the device back to specified parameters.
Current equipment is less affected by its environment, and most manufacturers have eliminated the external adjustment controls. The use of fixed value components minimizes the need for adjustments. Communication devices either perform as specified, or must be replaced. Manufacturers have created "board level" systems with all necessary components placed on a single card. Some manufacturers will make significant claims about the reliability of their products. Many will claim MTBFs mean-time-between-failures that make it seem as though failures occur once in a million years.
But, nothing lasts forever. Most communication system component hardware is constructed on a single printed circuit board that can easily be replaced by a qualified technician.
The components are so small that they can't be repaired, or replaced. Simply replacing the board with the failing component saves time and money. Don't confuse the "feature option" switches, or option setting software for maintenance controls.
The feature setting switches and software are only provided to allow users to optimize a device for a specific operational requirement. Communication hardware normally fails either during, or just after, installation. These failures are the direct result of manufacturing "birth defects" — that is, the manufacturing testing process fails to identify a manufacturing error, or substandard component. However, the leading cause of near term failures is the result of improper installation or operation.
Hardware manufacturers have standard component testing procedures to help assure that virtually all equipment leaving the production facility meets specifications more on this subject later in the chapter. Installation failures are caused when technicians fail to familiarize themselves with the manufacturer's recommendations. Many technicians will try to use shortcuts to reduce the installation time, or because they have installed similar equipment and believe that there are no differences between devices manufactured by different companies.
Another common error is to assume that there won't be differences between old and new versions of the same device. On a long term basis, most failures are the result of electronic component aging through constant heating and cooling components will fail to meet original specifications. Systems will either fail, or develop substandard functional characteristics. Don't forget that equipment also fails because of lightning strikes, electrical power surges, and connection of electrical power to a communications port.
Most communications equipment is built with internal monitoring capabilities. Diagnostics are displayed in one of two general ways: external display on the equipment, or via diagnostics terminal or as a program on a PC. Most modems have L. A multiplexer or router will provide diagnostics via directly connected terminal, or through a device setup and management program on a PC. Keeping track of all communication devices is part of any maintenance program.
A simple equipment list table is best. The following is an example:. An individual should be assigned to keep track of all equipment, and maintain relationships with manufacturers, installation companies, and system integrators.
This person should have experience or training for completing simple repair and installation of communications equipment. If there is not enough equipment to require a full-time staff maintenance specialist, the agency should consider part-time personnel, or an outsource contractor. A field verification inventory should be conducted at least once per year. Whenever a new system is installed, an information table should be completed and added to the database.
If communication systems are very reliable and don't require constant attention, why budget for maintenance? One of the first items to consider when creating a maintenance budget is "who" will do the maintenance work, and what type of services will they be required to provide? This is in some way a "chicken or the egg" question.
If full maintenance services are provided testing, using diagnostic equipment, and full repairs , you will need highly qualified and trained technicians. If maintenance is viewed as a matter of blowing the dust out of the cabinet, and making a call to an outsourced repair and maintenance service, a semi-skilled individual with minimal experience and training will suffice. Most DOTs have been using some type of communications system to support traffic management and department operations for many years.
A few have created an internal staff function to support maintenance and upgrade functions, others outsource the required services. Following is a suggested maintenance technician experience level table:.
These levels are directly related to experience with telecommunication and other technology based systems, not general work experience. An individual with 10 years of experience as a project manager would not be considered as having the qualifications to be a maintenance technician for telecommunication equipment.
There are a number of good High School Vocational education programs, and Technical School programs that provide individuals with the proper knowledge and skills for an entry level maintenance technician position. The U. The type of equipment will often help determine the experience level of personnel required to support a maintenance function. If everything is leased from a communication carrier, entry level personnel can be used. Their primary job description will be to manage the services supplied by the communication carrier, and call for support when necessary.
A system comprised of a large number of communication devices with a mix of new less than 2 years old and legacy more than 5 years old equipment will require support from more experienced personnel. With this type of system, the maintenance personnel will need to know when to call in outside support to effect repairs. If the system consists of a few CCTV cameras, several changeable message signs and traffic flow detectors, with required communication equipment, it's probably best to arrange for outsourced services.
Consider that special tools and test equipment may be needed to help troubleshoot communication problems, with highly compensated experienced maintenance technicians. A communication equipment maintenance contract will typically cost between 10 and 20 percent per year of the original equipment cost. Make certain that at least one of the technicians has a significant background for maintaining telecommunication systems.
Basic traffic signal systems use modems and wireline transmission media. Technicians will only have to be able to do general troubleshooting and item replacement. Traffic signal repair personnel can be trained to this level of repair. A simple single function system traffic signal control will require personnel with fewer skill sets. Training will be limited to knowledge of upgrades to cover new equipment. Systems will have minimum complexity. Complex systems supporting multiple types of communications equipment and systems will require a larger staff with more skill sets and continuous training for changes in systems and upgrades.
One important aspect of the budget development process is completion of a risk assessment. This should have been done for the overall system design during consideration of redundancy, and will have a direct impact on the maintenance budget. The communication system is, in most respects, the least failure prone element of an overall system, but potentially has a high risk of being disrupted by outside forces.
The risk assessment is not done to create the maintenance budget. Elements of the assessment will provide an indication of how much money will be required to accomplish repairs in the event of a problem.
In this case, risk does not refer to intentional disruption — although, that certainly is a factor — but the potential for power failures, "Backhoe Fade" cable cuts from construction , lightning strikes, HVAC failures, etc. The risk assessment should consider the following:.
Knowing which elements of your communication system can be out of service and awaiting repairs will help provide effective management of resources. The cost to effect repairs during a holiday period will always be more than repairs completed during normal business hours. Even during holiday periods there are portions of the system that can be out of service without effecting operations. Communication devices will require some type of upgrade during their life cycle. Most communication equipment will operate for 10, or more, years without a problem.
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Special provisions relating to outsourcing facilities. This article applies to the profession of pharmacy. The general provisions for all professions contained in article one hundred thirty of this title apply to this article. The practice of the profession of pharmacy is defined as the preparing, compounding, preserving, or the dispensing of drugs, medicines and therapeutic devices on the basis of prescriptions or other legal authority, and collaborative drug therapy management in accordance with the provisions of section sixty-eight hundred one-a of this article. TThe practice of the profession of pharmacy is defined as the preparing, compounding, preserving, or the dispensing of drugs, medicines and therapeutic devices on the basis of prescriptions or other legal authority.
State contracts may have definitions specific to a contract, and Texas statutes may provide other definitions for the same terms or phrases which apply to various scenarios and exceptions. While statutory definitions have the force of law, they don't always offer the best plain language definition. When using this glossary, please consider the interrelation of these definitions, statutory definitions and contractual definitions. Where there is a perceived conflict or ambiguity, please consult your legal counsel. Electronic and Information Resources EIR Accessibility -- Includes information technology and any equipment or interconnected system or subsystem of equipment used to create, convert, duplicate, or deliver data or information. EIR Accessibility includes telecommunications products such as telephones , information kiosks and transaction machines, web sites, multimedia, and office equipment such as copiers and fax machines.
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