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Production factory felt and felt products, felt parts, hats and semi-finished felt, felted shoes

Production factory felt and felt products, felt parts, hats and semi-finished felt, felted shoes

The study of the history of clothing and textiles traces the development, use, and availability of clothing and textiles over human history. Clothing and textiles reflect the materials and technologies available in different civilizations at different times. The variety and distribution of clothing and textiles within a society reveal social customs and culture. The wearing of clothing is exclusively a human characteristic and is a feature of most human societies, though it is not known exactly when various peoples began wearing clothes. Anthropologists believe that animal skins and vegetation were adapted into coverings as protection from cold, heat and rain, especially as humans migrated to new climates.

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The study of the history of clothing and textiles traces the development, use, and availability of clothing and textiles over human history. Clothing and textiles reflect the materials and technologies available in different civilizations at different times.

The variety and distribution of clothing and textiles within a society reveal social customs and culture. The wearing of clothing is exclusively a human characteristic and is a feature of most human societies, though it is not known exactly when various peoples began wearing clothes. Anthropologists believe that animal skins and vegetation were adapted into coverings as protection from cold, heat and rain, especially as humans migrated to new climates.

Textiles can be felt or spun fibers made into yarn and subsequently netted , looped, knit or woven to make fabrics, which appeared in the Middle East during the late stone age. Sources available for the study of clothing and textiles include material remains discovered via archaeology ; representation of textiles and their manufacture in art; and documents concerning the manufacture, acquisition, use, and trade of fabrics, tools, and finished garments.

Scholarship of textile history, especially its earlier stages, is part of material culture studies. The development of textile and clothing manufacture in prehistory has been the subject of a number of scholarly studies since the late 20th century. Evidence suggests that humans may have begun wearing clothing as far back as , to , years ago.

Genetic analysis suggests that the human body louse , which lives in clothing, may only have diverged from the head louse some , years ago, which supports evidence that humans began wearing clothing at around this time. These estimates predate the first known human exodus from Africa , although other hominid species who may have worn clothes — and shared these louse infestations — appear to have migrated earlier.

Sewing needles have been dated to at least 50, years ago Denisova Cave , Siberia — and uniquely associated with a human species other than modern humans , i. The oldest possible example is 60, years ago, a needlepoint missing stem and eye found in Sibudu Cave , South Africa. Other early examples of needles dating from 41,, years ago are found in multiple locations, e.

Slovenia, Russia, China, Spain, and France. The earliest dyed flax fibres have been found in a prehistoric cave in Georgia and date back to 36, The 25,year-old Venus Figurine " Venus of Lespugue ", found in southern France in the Pyrenees, depicts a cloth or twisted fiber skirt. Other figurines from western Europe were adorned with basket hats or caps, belts were worn at the waist, and a strap of cloth that wrapped around the body right above the breast.

Eastern European figurines wore belts, hung low on the hips and sometimes string skirts. Archaeologists have discovered artifacts from the same period that appear to have been used in the textile arts: BC net gauges, spindle needles, and weaving sticks. The first actual textile, as opposed to skins sewn together, was probably felt. In northern Eurasia , peat bogs can also preserve textiles very well. It was woven out of vegetable fibers and dates back to 8, B.

From pre-history through the early Middle Ages, for most of Europe, the Near East and North Africa, two main types of loom dominate textile production. These are the warp-weighted loom and the two-beam loom. The length of the cloth beam determined the width of the cloth woven upon it, and could be as wide as 2—3 meters. The second loom type is the two-beam loom. Throughout the Neolithic and Bronze Ages, the fertile grounds of the Eurasian Steppe provided a venue for a network of nomadic communities to develop and interact.

The Steppe Route has always connected regions of the Asian continent with trade and transmission of culture, including clothing. Trade on the Silk Road was a significant factor in the development of the great civilizations of China, Egypt, Mesopotamia , Persia , the Indian subcontinent, and Rome , and helped to lay the foundations for the modern world.

The exchange of luxury textiles was predominant on the Silk Road , which linked traders, merchants, pilgrims , monks , soldiers, nomads and urban dwellers from China to the Mediterranean Sea during various periods of time. In Mesopotamia , the clothing of a regular Sumerian was very simple, especially in summer, in the winter wearing clothes made of sheep fur.

Even wealthy men were depicted with naked torsos, wearing just some kind of short skirt, known as kaunakes , while women wore long dress to their ankles.

The king wore a tunic, a coat that reached to his knees, with a belt in the middle. Over time, the development of the craft of wool weaving has led to a great variety in clothing. Thus, towards the end of the 3rd millennium BC and later the men wore a tunic with short sleeves and even over the knees, with a belt over which the rich wore a wool cloak.

Women's dresses featured more varied designs: with or without sleeves, narrow or wide, usually long and without highlighting the body [11]. The Statue of Ebih-Il ; c. We do not know what the people who constituted the Indus Valley Civilization, one of the earliest civilizations of the world, actually wore. Any cloth that might have been worn has long since disintegrated and we have not yet been able to decipher the Indus script. However, historians and archaeologists have managed to piece together some bits of information from clues found in sculptures and figurines.

Terracotta figurines uncovered at Mehrgarh show a male figure wearing what is commonly interpreted to be a turban; female figurines depict women with elaborate headdress and intricate hairstyles. One of the most important recovered figurines is that of the "Priest King" from the site of Mohenjo-daro. It is not only important because scholars have called it a representation of an assumed authority or head of state but also because of what it is wearing, however, it was recently discovered to be an interpretation of a wealthy trader.

The calmly seated Priest-King is depicted wearing a shawl with floral patterns. So far, this is the only sculpture from the Indus Valley to show clothing in such explicit detail. However, it does not provide any concrete proof to legitimize the history of clothing in the Harappan times.

Harappans may even have used natural colours to dye their fabric. Research shows that the cultivation of indigo plants genus: Indigofera was prevalent. Another important sculpture is of a dancing girl, also excavated from Mohenjo-daro. She is depicted with no clothing other than a number of bangles upon her arm. Lal [13] has managed draw parallels between the dancing girl and women today in parts of Rajasthan and Gujarat.

He notices how contemporary women continue wearing those bangles even today. Harappans may not have left any evidence of what clothing or textiles they had at that time but they did leave remains of jewellery and beads in large amounts. For instance, the graves of Harappans have yielded various forms of jewellery such as neckpieces, bracelets, rings, and head ornaments.

Multiple beads of varying shapes and sizes have also been recovered. This jewellery incorporates various materials such as gold, bronze, terracotta, faience, and shells; imported materials including turquoise and lapis lazuli were used too.

This suggests that the Harappans might have engaged in long-distance trade. Long, slender carnelian beads were highly prized by the Harappans. Harappans were also experts in manufacturing microbeads, which have been found in various locations from hearths and graves. These beads were extremely hard to work with and needed extra precision to produce. A special drill has been found both at Lothal and Chanhudaro. Chanhudaro was a centre exclusively devoted to craft production.

Painting on wooden panel discovered by Aurel Stein in Dandan Oilik , depicting the legend of the princess who hid silk worm eggs in her headdress to smuggle them out of China to the Kingdom of Khotan; 7th to 8th century; British Museum London. Evidence exists for production of linen cloth in Ancient Egypt in the Neolithic period, c.

Cultivation of domesticated wild flax , probably an import from the Levant , is documented as early as c. Other bast fibers including rush , reed , palm , and papyrus were used alone or with linen to make rope and other textiles. Evidence for wool production in Egypt is scanty at this period.

Spinning techniques included the drop spindle, hand-to-hand spinning, and rolling on the thigh; yarn was also spliced. Linen bandages were used in the burial custom of mummification , and art depicts Egyptian men wearing linen kilts and women in narrow dresses with various forms of shirts and jackets, often of sheer pleated fabric.

Illustration from the book Ancient Egyptian, Assyrian, and Persian costumes and decorations. The earliest evidence of silk production in China was found at the sites of Yangshao culture in Xia, Shanxi , where a cocoon of bombyx mori , the domesticated silkworm, cut in half by a sharp knife is dated to between and BC. Fragments of primitive looms are also seen from the sites of Hemudu culture in Yuyao, Zhejiang , dated to about BC.

Under the Shang Dynasty, Han Chinese clothing or Hanfu consisted of a yi , a narrow-cuffed, knee-length tunic tied with a sash, and a narrow, ankle-length skirt, called shang , worn with a bixi , a length of fabric that reached the knees. Clothing of the elite was made of silk in vivid primary colours.

The earliest evidence of spinning in Thailand can be found at the archaeological site of Tha Kae located in Central Thailand. Here, archaeologists discovered 90 fragments of spindle whorl dated from 3rd century BC to 3rd century AD. And the shape of these finds indicate the connections with south China and India. This culture is defined by pottery decorated with cord patterns. In a shell mound in the Miyagi Prefecture, dating back about 5,, some cloth fragments were discovered made from bark fibers.

Some pottery pattern imprints depict also fine mat designs, proving their weaving techniques. The depictions also show clothing with patterns that are embroidered or painted arched designs, though it is not apparent whether this indicates what the clothes look like or whether that simply happens to be the style of representation used. The pottery also shows no distinction between male and female garments.

This may have been true because during that time period clothing was more for decoration than social distinction, but it might also just be because of the representation on the pottery rather than how people actually dressed at the time. Since bone needles were also found, it is assumed that they wore dresses that were sewn together.

Next was the Yayoi period, during which rice cultivation was developed. This led to a shift from hunter-gatherer communities to agrarian societies which had a large impact on clothing. According to Chinese literature from that time period, clothing more appropriate to agriculture began to be worn.

For example, an unsewn length of fabric wrapped around the body, or a poncho-type garment with a head-hole cut into it. This same literature also indicates that pink or scarlet makeup was worn but also that mannerisms between people of all ages and genders were not very different. However, this is debatable as there were probably cultural prejudices in the Chinese document. There is a common Japanese belief that the Yayoi time period was quite utopian before Chinese influence began to promote the use of clothing to indicate age and gender.

From to AD was the Yamato period, and here much of the clothing style can be derived from the artifacts of the time. The tomb statues haniwa especially tell us that the clothing style changed from the ones according to the Chinese accounts from the previous age.

The statues are usually wearing a two piece outfit that has an upper piece with a front opening and close-cut sleeves with loose trousers for men and a pleated skirt for women. Silk farming had been introduced by the Chinese by this time period but due to silk's cost it would only be used by people of certain classes or ranks.

The following periods were the Asuka to AD and Nara to AD when Japan developed a more unified government and began to use Chinese laws and social rankings. These new laws required people to wear different styles and colors to indicate social status.

Felt Making

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Stiff coarse open and even weave fabric with basket weave construction used for needlework particularly cross stitch. A plain weave cotton or linen fabric used to make mens shirts suits etc. A needlepoint lace with fine net background with cord outlining design. Plain or twill fabric, woven from a cotton warp and an Angola yarn weft. Principally used as shirting cloths for the home trade. A heavy weight fabric with nap used to make overcoats. Thermal underwear fabric. Cotton fabric with eyelet embroidery done all over. This fabric looks just like brocade and is used for home decor to make drapery and cover upholstery. The pattern will be puffed or blistered and will be in high relief, and is made on a jacquard loom.

wool felt hoods

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Felt, Cork and Fleece

The seawater resistant fibre was originally used for making twines and ropes. Cellulose acetate is the acetate ester of cellulose and was invented in It is mainly used as a synthetic fibre in textiles under the names of celanese and acetate. Applications in lingerie, wedding dresses, party dresses, blouses.

The term textile industry from the Latin texere, to weave was originally applied to the weaving of fabrics from fibres, but now it includes a broad range of other processes such as knitting, tufting, felting and so on. It has also been extended to include the making of yarn from natural or synthetic fibres as well as the finishing and dyeing of fabrics. In prehistoric eras, animal hair, plants and seeds were used to make fibres. Silk was introduced in China around BC, and in the middle of the 18th century AD, the first synthetic fibres were created. Silk is the only natural fibre formed in filaments which can be twisted together to make yarn.

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Contents Introduction 8 I. The History of Felt 8 What is felt? Looking back in the history of felt 8 Living with felt 12 -. Traditional and Modern Techniques and Motifs 32 Felting with cutout shapes Feltmaking and weaving 33 Changing texture and structure 36 Copying a picture in felt 38 Mixing of fibers and colors Accenting with thread Cutting out designs Applique and embroidery Decorating with sequins and beads Adding fringe to felt 38 38 38 40 41 Introduction During the last two decades there has been a revival of interest in working with felt, the oldest textile form on earth. Or, as one cheerful American remarked: "Felt is the latest hit from the past.

Jul 28, - Methods of obtaining goods include manufacturing, producing, "Product" means the product being manufactured, even if it is Preparations of vegetables, fruit, nuts or other parts of plants Wadding, felt and nonwovens; special yarns; twine, cordage, ropes and cables and Semi-finished products of.

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History of clothing and textiles

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It is conceded as an axiom, that theory and practice, in the pursuit of any object, are in their natures essentially different and distinct. But at the same time they long for a mutual understanding each to confirm the assertions of the other, the consummation of all practical results being the mutual embrace and perfect reconciliation of these two attributes. The writer of these pages, being a practical hatter, desires to describe intelligibly his calling, dispensing with all technical terms, at the same time conscious of being liable to receive an unfair criticism from his brother tradesmen, although perfectly innocent on their part, resulting from the prejudices engendered by the many would-be secrets that pertain to the different work-shops, together with their various modes and methods of working, all of which most generally are but trifles merely to gain a name. The practice of a trade without a knowledge of the why and the wherefore of certain usages is a sad defect in any workman, but more especially in certain trades: Hatting being one of those which depends upon second causes for its proficiency, we venture here an explanation with perfect confidence, hoping that the fraternity of hatters will be indulgent, and that they may profit by an experience of many years in the trade, and that for one error or omission in the writing of [10] these sheets they will find compensation in the new ideas that will spring from their perusal, which may be an incentive to further improvements in the business resulting beneficially to all.

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- Я ничего не сделал. - Ничего не сделал? - вскричала Сьюзан, думая, почему Стратмор так долго не возвращается.  - Вы вместе с Танкадо взяли АНБ в заложники, после чего ты и его обвел вокруг пальца. Скажи, Танкадо действительно умер от сердечного приступа или же его ликвидировал кто-то из ваших людей. - Ты совсем ослепла.

- Быть может, Хейл был прав, говоря, что система резервного питания подает недостаточное количество фреона. - А как же автоматическое отключение. Стратмор задумался. - Должно быть, где-то замыкание. Желтый сигнал тревоги вспыхнул над шифровалкой, и свет, пульсируя, прерывистыми пятнами упал налицо коммандера. - Может, отключить его самим? - предложила Сьюзан.

На лице Сьюзан на мгновение мелькнуло недоумение. Она побледнела и прошептала: - О Боже… Стратмор утвердительно кивнул, зная, что она догадалась. - Он целый год хвастался, что разрабатывает алгоритм, непробиваемый для грубой силы.

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  1. Shaktikree

    Rather amusing idea