Space production harsh fabrics made of chemical fibers
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- Bacterial factories could manufacture high-performance proteins for space missions
- How Sustainable is That Fabric You’re Wearing?
- New opportunities in textile manufacturing
- Fiber Selection for the Production of Nonwovens
- Metallic Fibres
- Know Your Fibers: Cotton vs. Viscose Rayon
- Burn Test Chart
- Polyester Production, Price and Market Forecast
- Table of Contents
Bacterial factories could manufacture high-performance proteins for space missions
The most significant feature of nonwoven fabric is made directly from fibers in a continuous production line. While manufacturing nonwovens, some conventional textile operations, such as carding, drawing, roving, spinning, weaving or knitting, are partially or completely eliminated.
For this reason the choice of fiber is very important for nonwoven manufacturers. The commonly used fibers include natural fibers cotton, jute, flax, wool , synthetic fibers polyester PES , polypropylene PP , polyamide, rayon , special fibers glass, carbon, nanofiber, bi-component, superabsorbent fibers. Raw materials have not only delivered significant product improvements but also benefited people using these products by providing hygiene and comfort.
Non-woven Fabrics. However, today, the nonwoven fabric technology is the most modern method used in the branch of textile industry. Nonwoven technology exists to approximate the appearance, texture, and strength of conventional woven and knitted fabrics due to their simple production stages, high efficiency of production, lower cost, and disposability.
Multi-layer nonwoven composites, laminates, and three-dimensional nonwoven fabrics are commercially produced. Nonwovens combined with other materials have different chemical and physical properties. Therefore, nonwovens can be used a wide variety of industrial engineering, consumer, and health-care goods [ 1 - 7 ]. Among the textiles applications, nonwovens are one of the fastest-growing segments of the textile industry and constitute roughly one third of the fiber industry.
The latest estimates, taking into account the official INDA Association of Nonwoven Fabrics Industry figure 1 Figure 1 , put the global nonwovens production at over 1,, tons in North America, over 2,, tons in China, and around 2,, tons in Europe.
The fabrics are held together by means other than the interlacing or interloping characterizing traditional woven or knit fabrics [ 1 ]. While manufacturing nonwovens some conventional textile operations, such as carding, drawing, roving, spinning, weaving, or knitting, are partially or completely eliminated. For this reason, the choice of fiber is directly related to fabric quality [ 1 - 6 , 8 - 11 ]. All kinds of fibers can be used to produce nonwoven fabrics. The selection of fibers is based on the following features[ 1 , 6 ]:.
The commonly used fibers include natural fibers cotton, jute, flax, wool , synthetic fibers polyester PES , polypropylene PP , polyamide, rayon , special fibers glass, carbon, nanofibers, bicomponent, superabsorbent fibers , etc [ 1 , 6 , 8 - 10 , 12 - 15 , 16 ].
Two or more types of fibers are typically utilized. The fibers are usually blended or mixed in order to improve performance properties of nonwovens, such as strength and other properties. Man-made fibers are the most widely used in the nonwoven industry. Owing to impurities and higher costs, natural fibers are of minor importance for the production of nonwovens. Fiber characteristics influence not only nonwoven fabric properties but also processing performance.
Web cohesion, fiber breakage, and web weight uniformity are the key quality parameters and are influenced by fiber diameter, fiber length, fiber tensile properties, fiber finish, and crimp.
The properties of nonwoven fabrics are largely dependent on fiber properties and fabric structural geometry. Cotton is the most important vegetable fiber used to produce nonwoven bonded fabrics. The oldest textiles made from cotton originated around B.
At present, cotton is cultivated in about 75 countries on 79 million acres of land, which represents about 0. Cotton plants grow in shrub-or tree-like forms to heights o from 25 cm to 2 m, depending on origin, soil, climate, and cultivation conditions.
It grows fruit the size of walnuts which contain seeds that burst open and the cotton swells out in thick white flocks. The process of sowing to harvesting takes days. Hand picking is advantageous compared to machine picking, as only fibers from completely mature capsules are being collected.
After the harvest, the seeded cotton is ginned. Among the plant-derived fibers, cotton has the highest percentage of cellulose and is free of wooden particulates [ 1 - 4 , 6 ]. Figure 2 shows a vertical view, revealing the convolutions typical for a cotton fiber and the cross section of cotton fibers.
Cotton fiber was used extensively during the early development period of nonwoven business. Cotton mills in USA tried to find ways to upgrade the waste cotton fibers into saleable products.
The first method was bonding the short cotton fibers with latex and resin. These products were used in industrial wipes. Over the past decade, bleached cotton fiber has been used for producing fabrics on conventional nonwoven equipment.
These products were used in medical and health-care applications, wiping and wiper markets, and some apparel markets. At the same time, cotton fiber has physical properties like fiber length, strength, and resilience, which is important particularly to its process-ability.
For example, long cotton fiber is suitable for producing nonwovens. The fiber has excellent absorbency and feels comfortable for the skin. The wet and dry strengths are good. Dimensional stability and resilience recovery are moderate.
The spunlace process is usually utilized in producing medical and health-care fabrics, especially in Japan and the Asian region [ 14 ]. After cotton, jute is the natural fiber with the second highest production volume.
Chemically, the jute is a highly lignified fiber, which consists of [ 6 , 9 , 11 ] the following:. Producing of a compound with the substances cellulose and bastose is differ from bast fibers. Jute is a significant fiber for special applications of nonwoven bonded fabrics. It is mostly used because of its inexpensiveness and good physical properties:. Flax is the one of the oldest cultivated plants with a cultural importance dating to prehistorical periods.
Linseed was first found in the former Mesopotamia. Fragments, linseed, and capsules are estimated to be from the eighth millennium. Flax was discovered during the excavation of Ali Kosh in Iran. In old Egyptian graves and seaside settlements in Switzerland, linen fabrics and mummification bandages were found. They originated around B. The oldest fabric fragment found to date is from a settlement in ancient Egypt [ 9 , 11 , 16 ].
Flax belongs to the family Linaceae, and the type considered here is from the genus Linum. There are wild-growing, small herbaceous perennials and cultivated annual flax plants. Flax is cultivated worldwide in tropical and cold climate zones. Fiber flax grows in humid, moderate climates, whereas oil flax grows in dry, warm areas.
The fibers are embedded in the parenchyma of the stem in a high concentration and are freed by retting. Then the flax is washed, dried, and broken to loosen the brittle wood from the bast and to separate the fibers from each other.
The wooden parts are removed by means of scotches [ 6 ]. Finally, the fibers are combed by means of hackles. The properties of technical fibers and single fibers have to be distinguished. The technical fiber is mm in length and composed of a fiber bundle. It has a fineness of about dtex. The maturity of the fiber is determined by harvesting time. Good fiber profit with good fiber quality may be obtained at the time of yellow maturity. For all these properties, flax fiber is used for nonwoven bonded fabrics, mostly for the fabrication of filling pieces [ 11 , 16 ].
Wool is the most important animal fiber used in manufacturing nonwoven bonded fabrics. It is used mainly as reclaimed wool or cuttings because of its high price. The variation in quality and the impurities in reclaimed wool as well as the chemical and physical properties determined by its provenance impose restrictions on its use [ 17 ]. Wool is a suitably stiff and permanently crimped bi-component fiber.
The distinct variations in thickness are in most cases favorable to produce nonwovens [ 16 ]. Wool fiber is initially used to make felt. The wool fibers are then pressed into a flat sheet and subjected to moisture, heat, and agitation. The scaly structure of the wool fiber causes the fibers to interlock and mat. Weaving or knitting in the production of such felts and simple mechanical interlocking of fibers in the production of such felts and simple mechanical interlocking of fibers in a batt structure is capable of producing a dimensional stable fabrics with densities, up to 0.
Animal felts have been used since ancient times. Traditional felting method is still used for producing clothing item such as hats, slippers, interlinings and handbags. In addition to traditional felting method, modern pressed felting techniques are used in a wide range of industrial applications.
These products are used for polishing metals, optical surfaces plastics, and jewelry, and in manufacturing seals, gaskets, washers, felt nibs and markers, air and liquid filters, oil wicks, piano cushion felts, shoes, toys, pennants, table covers, notice boards, bookbinding, furniture components and orthopedic appliances. Wool is not only used for producing felts but also used for producing needle-punched, hydroentangled, thermally and chemically bonded fabrics.
Man-made fibers such as polyester, polypropylene, viscose rayon, and blends containing cotton, wood pulp, and other fibers can be used for producing hydroentangled bonded fabrics in the medical and hygiene industries.
However, in recent years, wool is used hydroentanglement process [ 20 ]. Commercially, these jets operate at pressures of about bar, although much higher pressures up to bar are now possible depending on the machine design. The jet pressures used depend on web weight line speed and fiber properties, and normally, the pressure is profiled so that it tends to increase as the web passed toward the machine exit.
Usually, the web is treated face and back to achieve a homogeneously bonded structure, although single-sided treatments are possible using lightweight webs [ 20 ]. At each injector, suction is applied from below to remove excess water from the surface of the conveyor. The design and surface structure of the conveyor belt influence the resulting fabric structure. Bonded fabric is taken away from the belt and is dried, wound, and slit according to the required width.
Chemical and thermal bonding can be done before and after drying. While producing nonwoven fabrics by the hydroentanglement method, a large volume of water is used. Water has to be recirculated and filtered to remove particulates before entering to the injectors.
How Sustainable is That Fabric You’re Wearing?
This synthetic polymer is made from petroleum-derived ethylene glycol and terephthalic acid. They are either thermoplastics or thermoset based on their chemical composition and structure. Majorly used Polyester polymer is thermoplastics. Polyester is a kind of polymer with some specific materials. It is a type of Polyethylene terephthalate used for any fabric or textile and made using polyester yarns and fiber.
Denim abrasion with enzymes removes indigo and gives denim a used, vintage look. Denim finishing with enzymes bleaches the indigo and gives a lighter shade. Reduces or eliminates the use of potassium permanganate and pumice stones. Reliable new second-generation enzymatic scouring.
New opportunities in textile manufacturing
An award-winning team of journalists, designers, and videographers who tell brand stories through Fast Company's distinctive lens. Leaders who are shaping the future of business in creative ways. New workplaces, new food sources, new medicine--even an entirely new economic system. The new fabric, made by a startup called Spinnova , uses a mechanical process instead of chemicals; the only byproduct is evaporated water, which is reused in production. Unlike cotton, which uses massive amounts of water in areas often prone to droughts, it needs little water, no pesticides, and no farmland. Other fabrics, like polyester, add to microplastic pollution in water and rely on fossil fuels as a raw material. The forests are already producing more wood than is used by industry. An investor in the company, a forestry company in Brazil that grows eucalyptus trees, will likely supply some of the first material. The technology could also recycle clothing made out of the new textile, creating a closed loop. Right now, jeans and other cotton clothing that get recycled often end up as insulation, not new clothes.
Fiber Selection for the Production of Nonwovens
Written by: Dr. Anita A Desai Dr. Anita A Desai. This paper reviews the different types of metallic fibres and their production. Gold and silver were hammered into extremely thin sheets, then cut into ribbons and worked into fabrics.
Fashion and Textiles. December , Cite as. Innovation in textile has brought alternative plant based fibers such as bamboo into the spotlight and as a replacement to petrochemical based synthetic fibers.
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Learn More:. Some of the tree-related facts with regard to viscose rayon are chilling--while cotton plants are replaced seasonally on the farm, pine trees, for example, take years to regenerate after harvesting for viscose rayon. Furthermore, nearly 30 percent of the viscose rayon used in the fashion industry are harvested from ancient and endangered forests worldwide. The harvested trees go through a harsh chemical process to remove everything bark, lignin, etc. Both of these molecular qualities combine to make cotton fiber much stronger than rayon fiber.
Know Your Fibers: Cotton vs. Viscose Rayon
Lightweight construction describes a design principle which, in contrast to massive construction methods, shows savings in weight, resources and component complexity. In order to realize lightweight constructions, it is necessary to use lighter materials that can keep up with their massive competitors due to their high functionality. The constructions should have the same degree of stability despite the savings in weight and resources. Due to their reduced weight, lightweight constructions offer a potential for energy savings, as they require less energy in production, transport and application. MDT-tex uses the lightweight construction method in the form of textile architecture, in which textile membranes assume a load-bearing function and constitute an essential component of the constructions. Textile architecture is a variant of lightweight construction in which textiles play a decisive role. In order to reduce weight, textiles are used that are significantly lighter than solid building materials such as wood, steel, stone and glass.
If a material is going to be used for implants or prostheses, it had better be tough. The carbon fiber composites produced by Italian automaker Lamborghini may be up to the task, so samples will soon be on their way to the International Space Station — to have their mettle tested in the harsh conditions of outer space. It was a couple of years ago that we first heard about a collaboration between Automobili Lamborghini and the Texas-based Houston Methodist Research Institute , in which the former would be providing the latter with its technical expertise in the development of materials for use in biomedical devices. The research might also lead to materials that could be utilized in other applications, such as the building of more resilient spacecraft or lighter, stronger cars. Now, as part of that effort, it has been announced that no sooner than Nov.
Burn Test Chart
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Polyester Production, Price and Market Forecast
Marketing and business people in satellites, wireless, and electronics area who want to acquire a basic understanding of the technology will also find this book of interest. Space Antenna Handbook. William A.
With this completely updated encore to its highly welcomed debut, Interior Graphic Standards, Second Edition secures its place as the comprehensive resource for interior architects and designers. Thousands of detail drawings and carefully researched text by experts in the field guide readers in the design of interior spaces that perform as well as delight. Including all-new material on computer technologies and design practices influencing contemporary interior design projects, Interior Graphic Standards, Second Edition makes it easy for designers to stay current with recent trends. This new edition includes:. Expanded coverage of residential design; interior material energy use and environmental impact; and historic preservation and adaptive reuse.
Table of Contents
The most significant feature of nonwoven fabric is made directly from fibers in a continuous production line. While manufacturing nonwovens, some conventional textile operations, such as carding, drawing, roving, spinning, weaving or knitting, are partially or completely eliminated. For this reason the choice of fiber is very important for nonwoven manufacturers. The commonly used fibers include natural fibers cotton, jute, flax, wool , synthetic fibers polyester PES , polypropylene PP , polyamide, rayon , special fibers glass, carbon, nanofiber, bi-component, superabsorbent fibers. Raw materials have not only delivered significant product improvements but also benefited people using these products by providing hygiene and comfort. Non-woven Fabrics. However, today, the nonwoven fabric technology is the most modern method used in the branch of textile industry.
Nature Fiber Welding Inc. W hen the Department of Defense DoD began funding scientific research into how naturally occurring materials function, creating a keystone piece of a new circular economy was not necessarily on its radar. However, after more than 10 years of research, Natural Fiber Welding Inc.