Storage manufacture plant and animal fiber processing products
But have you ever thought about what your clothes are made of? Most of the time good qualities in clothing are associated with brands and high expenses; consumers will automatically gravitate towards familiar stores that are well-known for their quality, pricing, style etc. It goes without thinking about where in the world the garment was made, or which type of fabric was used; natural or synthetic? We never really bother to research the reason our favourite clothes are just that, our favourites. Natural fabrics—such as cotton, silk and wool—are made of animal or plant-based fibres, while synthetics are man-made and produced entirely from chemicals to create fabrics like polyester, rayon, acrylic, and many others.VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: How Linen Is Made
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Foods from plants and animals
Natural fibre , any hairlike raw material directly obtainable from an animal, vegetable, or mineral source and convertible into nonwoven fabrics such as felt or paper or, after spinning into yarns, into woven cloth. A natural fibre may be further defined as an agglomeration of cells in which the diameter is negligible in comparison with the length. Although nature abounds in fibrous materials, especially cellulosic types such as cotton , wood , grains, and straw , only a small number can be used for textile products or other industrial purposes.
Apart from economic considerations, the usefulness of a fibre for commercial purposes is determined by such properties as length, strength, pliability, elasticity, abrasion resistance, absorbency, and various surface properties. Most textile fibres are slender, flexible, and relatively strong.
They are elastic in that they stretch when put under tension and then partially or completely return to their original length when the tension is removed. The use of natural fibres for textile materials began before recorded history. The oldest indication of fibre use is probably the discovery of flax and wool fabrics at excavation sites of the Swiss lake dwellers 7th and 6th centuries bce. Several vegetable fibres were also used by prehistoric peoples.
Hemp , presumably the oldest cultivated fibre plant, originated in Southeast Asia , then spread to China, where reports of cultivation date to bce. The art of weaving and spinning linen was already well developed in Egypt by bce , indicating that flax was cultivated sometime before that date. Reports of the spinning of cotton in India date back to bce. The manufacture of silk and silk products originated in the highly developed Chinese culture; the invention and development of sericulture cultivation of silkworms for raw-silk production and of methods to spin silk date from bce.
With improved transportation and communication, highly localized skills and arts connected with textile manufacture spread to other countries and were adapted to local needs and capabilities. New fibre plants were also discovered and their use explored. In the 18th and 19th centuries, the Industrial Revolution encouraged the further invention of machines for use in processing various natural fibres, resulting in a tremendous upsurge in fibre production. The introduction of regenerated cellulosic fibres fibres formed of cellulose material that has been dissolved, purified, and extruded , such as rayon , followed by the invention of completely synthetic fibres , such as nylon , challenged the monopoly of natural fibres for textile and industrial use.
A variety of synthetic fibres having specific desirable properties began to penetrate and dominate markets previously monopolized by natural fibres. Recognition of the competitive threat from synthetic fibres resulted in intensive research directed toward the breeding of new and better strains of natural-fibre sources with higher yields, improved production and processing methods, and modification of fibre yarn or fabric properties. Natural fibres can be classified according to their origin.
The vegetable, or cellulose-base, class includes such important fibres as cotton, flax, and jute. The animal, or protein-base, fibres include wool , mohair , and silk. An important fibre in the mineral class is asbestos. The vegetable fibres can be divided into smaller groups based on their origin within the plant. Cotton , kapok , and coir are examples of fibres originating as hairs borne on the seeds or inner walls of the fruit, where each fibre consists of a single, long, narrow cell.
Flax , hemp , jute , and ramie are bast fibres , occurring in the inner bast tissue of certain plant stems and made up of overlapping cells. Abaca , henequen , and sisal are fibres occurring as part of the fibrovascular system of the leaves. Chemically, all vegetable fibres consist mainly of cellulose , although they also contain varying amounts of such substances as hemicellulose, lignin, pectins, and waxes that must be removed or reduced by processing.
The animal fibres consist exclusively of proteins and, with the exception of silk, constitute the fur or hair that serves as the protective epidermal covering of animals. Silk filaments are extruded by the larvae of moths and are used to spin their cocoons. With the exception of mineral fibres, all natural fibres have an affinity for water in both liquid and vapour form. This strong affinity produces swelling of the fibres connected with the uptake of water, which facilitates dyeing in watery solutions.
Unlike most synthetic fibres, all natural fibres are nonthermoplastic ; that is, they do not soften when heat is applied. At temperatures below the point at which they will decompose, they show little sensitivity to dry heat, and there is no shrinkage or high extensibility upon heating, nor do they become brittle if cooled to below freezing.
Natural fibres tend to yellow upon exposure to sunlight and moisture, and extended exposure results in loss of strength. All natural fibres are particularly susceptible to microbial decomposition , including mildew and rot. Cellulosic fibres are decomposed by aerobic bacteria those that live only in oxygen and fungi. Cellulose mildews and decomposes rapidly at high humidity and high temperatures, especially in the absence of light.
Wool and silk are also subject to microbial decomposition by bacteria and molds. Animal fibres are also subject to damage by moths and carpet beetles. Termites and silverfish attack cellulose fibres. Protection against both microbial damage and insect attacks can be obtained by chemical modification of the fibre substrate; modern developments allow treatment of natural fibres to make them essentially immune to such damage. Natural fibre. Article Media. Info Print Print.
Table Of Contents. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. Introduction History Classification and properties. Natural fibre raw material. See Article History. Read More on This Topic. Get exclusive access to content from our First Edition with your subscription. Subscribe today. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. The commercial development of man-made fibres began late in the 19th century, experienced much growth during the s, expanded rapidly after World War II, and is still the subject of….
Natural fibre s, including some linens, wools to be woven into tweed, and the uneven filaments of some types of silk cloth are allowed to retain their normal irregularities, producing the characteristic uneven surface of the finished fabric. Man-made fibres, which can be modified during production,…. The important natural fibres are cotton, wool, linen, and silk. Although silk has long been considered the most elegant and desirable of all natural fibres, it does not stand up well under direct sunlight and heat and, in general, requires more care than most other fibres.
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Natural fibre , any hairlike raw material directly obtainable from an animal, vegetable, or mineral source and convertible into nonwoven fabrics such as felt or paper or, after spinning into yarns, into woven cloth. A natural fibre may be further defined as an agglomeration of cells in which the diameter is negligible in comparison with the length. Although nature abounds in fibrous materials, especially cellulosic types such as cotton , wood , grains, and straw , only a small number can be used for textile products or other industrial purposes. Apart from economic considerations, the usefulness of a fibre for commercial purposes is determined by such properties as length, strength, pliability, elasticity, abrasion resistance, absorbency, and various surface properties.
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The textile process
A textile  is a flexible material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibers yarn or thread. Yarn is produced by spinning raw fibres of wool , flax , cotton , hemp , or other materials to produce long strands. The related words " fabric "  and " cloth "  and "material" are often used in textile assembly trades such as tailoring and dressmaking as synonyms for textile. However, there are subtle differences in these terms in specialized usage. A textile is any material made of interlacing fibres, including carpeting and geotextiles. A fabric is a material made through weaving, knitting, spreading, crocheting, or bonding that may be used in production of further goods garments, etc. Cloth may be used synonymously with fabric but is often a piece of fabric that has been processed. The word 'textile' is from Latin , from the adjective textilis , meaning 'woven', from textus , the past participle of the verb texere , 'to weave'.
Read more. All textiles are made up of fibres that are arranged in different ways to create the desired strength, durability, appearance and texture. The fibres can be of countless origins, but can be grouped into four main categories. Natural fibres, with the exception of silk, have a relatively short fibre length, measured in centimetres.
Wool, like everything people produce and use, affects the environment in some way. Groups and individuals interested in sustainability and ethical behaviour naturally want to understand how wool affects the world around us and to make informed choices accordingly. Wool is a short-term store of natural, renewable carbon.
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Register Now. Fibres have traditionally been used in all cultures of the world to meet basic requirements of clothing, storage, building material, and for items of daily use such as ropes and fishing nets. Traditionally, natural fibers have been used in all cultures for making utilitarian products. Different parts of the plant are used. Fibers can be extracted from the bark banana, jute, hemp, ramie , stem banana, palm, bamboo , leaf palm, screw pine, sisal, agave , husk coir , seeds cotton , and grass sikki, madhurkati, benakati, munj. Animal fibers are obtained from a variety of animal coats, and insect fibers from cocoons.
Wenhao Dai received his Ph. Dai has more than 25 years experience in woody plant research. His research areas cover woody plant physiology, biotechnology, molecular genetics, propagation, and production. His research work in the field of woody plant physiology includes physiological and biochemical basis of tree dwarfness persimmon , overwintering physiological indices in Japanese apricot, tanning metabolism in persimmon fruits, and regulation of plant growth and development in pear and sweet persimmon. Recent work has been focused on molecular characterization of iron deficiency resistance in poplar trees and investigation of mechanisms of phytoplasma-disease resistance in Prunus species. Dai has published more than 35 peerreviewed papers in international journals.
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Milling Equipment, LLC. Stonehedge Fiber Milling Equipment provides quality fiber machinery for all aspects of turning raw fiber into top-quality rovings for sale to handspinners and yarn for sale to knitters and weavers. Our goal is to help you make the right decision as to whether or not opening a fiber mill is the right option for you. Fiber Processing Equipment For Sale has 8, members.
As with many discoveries of early man, anthropologists believe the use of wool came out of the challenge to survive. In seeking means of protection and warmth, humans in the Neolithic Age wore animal pelts as clothing. Finding the pelts not only warm and comfortable but also durable, they soon began to develop the basic processes and primitive tools for making wool.
Animal fibers are natural fibers that consist largely of particular proteins. The animal fibers used most commonly both in the manufacturing world as well as by the hand spinners are wool from domestic sheep and silk. Also very popular are alpaca fiber and mohair from Angora goats. Unusual fibers such as Angora wool from rabbits and Chiengora from dogs also exist, but are rarely used for mass production.
Please fill in your details to download the Table of Contents of this report for free. We also do customization of these reports so you can write to us at mi fibre2fashion. Fibre is the starting point of the textile chain. First of all, fibre is obtained from the source, which is then spun into yarn. Yarn is then woven or knitted into fabric.
Теперь пользователь мог посылать конфиденциальные сообщения: ведь если даже его послание перехватывалось, расшифровать его могли лишь те, кто знал ключ-пароль. АНБ сразу же осознало, что возникла кризисная ситуация. Коды, с которыми столкнулось агентство, больше не были шифрами, что разгадывают с помощью карандаша и листка бумаги в клетку, - теперь это были компьютеризированные функции запутывания, основанные на теории хаоса и использующие множественные символические алфавиты, чтобы преобразовать сообщение в абсолютно хаотичный набор знаков.
Сначала используемые пароли были довольно короткими, что давало возможность компьютерам АНБ их угадывать.