Warehouse building ship devices and deck mechanisms
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Industry Trends for Warehousing, Shipping and Distribution
The transport sector encompasses industries that are involved in the transportation of goods and passengers throughout the world. This sector is structurally complex and vitally important to economies locally, nationally and globally. The transport sector is vitally important to the economic viability of nations. Transportation plays a key role in economically important factors such as employment, utilization of raw and manufactured goods, investment of private and public capital and generation of tax revenues.
In the United States alone, the Department of Transportation reported that in , there were approximately 7. The transport sector is also a major consumer of raw materials and finished goods in most industrialized countries. Capital investment utilizing public and private funds to purchase trucks, ships, airplanes, terminals and other equipment and facilities easily exceeds hundreds of billions of dollars in industrialized countries.
The transport sector also plays a major role in generating revenues in the form of taxes. In industrialized countries, transport of passengers and freight is often heavily taxed Sampson, Farris and Shrock ; Gentry, Semeijn and Vellenga Typically these taxes take the form of fuel taxes on gasoline and diesel fuels, and excise taxes on freight bills and passenger tickets, and easily exceed hundreds of billions of dollars annually.
In the early stages of the transport sector, geography greatly influenced what was the dominant mode of transportation. As advances were made in construction technology, it became possible to overcome many of the geographical barriers that limited the development of the transport sector.
As a result, the modes of transport that have dominated the sector evolved in accordance with the technology available. Initially, water travel over the oceans was the primary mode of transport of freight and passengers. As large rivers were navigated and canals were built, the volume of inland transport over the waterways increased significantly.
In the late nineteenth century, transport over railways began to emerge as the dominant mode of transport.
Rail transport, because of its ability to overcome natural barriers such as mountains and valleys through the use of tunnels and bridges, offered flexibility that waterways could not provide. Furthermore, unlike transport over waterways, transport over the rails was virtually unaffected by winter conditions. Many national governments recognized the strategic and economic advantages of rail transport. Consequently, rail companies were awarded governmental financial assistance to facilitate the expansion of rail networks.
In the early twentieth century, the development of the combustion engine combined with the increased use of motor vehicles enabled road transport to become an increasingly popular mode of transport. As the highway and throughway systems were developed, road transport enabled door-to-door deliveries of goods.
This flexibility far surpassed that of railways and waterways. Eventually, as advances were made in road construction and improvements were made to the internal combustion engine, in many parts of the world road transport became faster than rail transport.
Consequently, road transport has become the most used mode of transport of goods and passengers. The transport sector continued to evolve with the advent of airplanes. The use of airplanes as a means to transport freight and passengers began during the Second World War. Initially, airplanes were primarily used to transport mail and soldiers. However, as aircraft construction was perfected and an increasing number of persons learned to operate airplanes, air transport grew in popularity.
Today, air transport is a very fast, reliable mode of transport. However, in terms of total tonnage, air transport handles only a very small percentage of freight. Information on the structure of rail systems in industrialized countries is generally reliable and comparable ILO Similar information on road systems is somewhat less reliable.
Information on the structure of waterways is reliable, having not changed substantially in the past few decades. However, similar information regarding developing countries is scarce and unreliable. European countries developed economic and political blocs that have had a significant impact on the transport sector.
In Europe, road transport dominates the movement of freight and passengers. Trucking, with a heavy emphasis on less-than-trailer-load freight, is conducted by small national and regional carriers.
This industry is heavily regulated and highly fractured. However, several European countries are working diligently to increase the efficiency of rail transport and are promoting intermodal transport. In the United States, the primary mode of transport is over the roadways. The Department of Transportation, Office of Motor Carriers, reported in that there were over , firms operating medium and heavy trucks DOT This included large companies that transport their own products, smaller private firms, and for-hire truckload and less-than-truckload common and contract carriers.
These companies operate a total of 1. The rail systems in the United States have declined, due primarily to the loss of Class 1 status of some rail lines, and due to the abandonment of less profitable lines. In the industrialized nations of the Pacific Rim, there is great variability of the rail and road systems, due mainly to the different levels of industrialization of the respective countries.
In Japan, the transport sector is heavily dominated by road transport, which accounts for Approximately 8. Developing countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America typically suffer from inadequate transport systems.
There is significant work underway to improve the systems, but a lack of hard currency, skilled workers and equipment inhibits the growth. Transport systems have grown significantly in Venezuela, Mexico and Brazil. The Middle East in general has experienced growth in the transport sector, with countries such as Kuwait and Iran leading the way.
It should be noted that due to the large size of the countries, sparse populations and arid climatic conditions, unique problems are encountered that limit the development of transport systems in this region. An overview of railroad and road systems for selected countries and world regions is shown in figure Figure However, as per capita income increases, the impact of the sector on total employment decreases. The overall number of workers in the transport industries has declined steadily since the s.
This loss of workforce in the sector is due to several factors, especially technological advances that have automated many of the jobs related to the construction, maintenance and operation of transport systems. In addition, many countries have passed legislation which deregulated many transport-related industries; this has ultimately resulted in the loss of jobs.
Workers who are currently employed in transport-related industries must be highly skilled and competent. Due to the rapid advances in technology experienced in the transport sector, these workers and prospective workers must receive continual training and retraining. The transportation and warehousing industry is fraught with challenges to worker health and safety.
Those involved in loading and unloading of cargo and in storing, stacking and retrieving materials are prone to musculoskeletal injuries, slips and falls due to uncertain, irregular or slippery work surfaces and being struck by falling objects.
See figure Those operating and maintaining vehicles and other machinery are not only vulnerable to such injuries but also to the toxic effects of fuels, lubricants and exhaust fumes. If ergonomic principles are not heeded in the design of seats, pedals and instrument panels, drivers of trains, planes and motor vehicles those used in warehousing as well on roads will not only be subject to musculoskeletal disorders and undue fatigue, but will also be prone to operating mishaps that can lead to accidents.
Teamsters Union. Since much of the work is done out-of-doors, transportation and warehousing workers are also subject to extremes of weather such as heat, cold, rain, snow and ice, which can not only make the work more arduous but also more dangerous. Aviation crews must adjust to changes in barometric pressure. Noise is a perennial problem for those operating or working near noisy vehicles and machinery.
Perhaps the most pervasive hazard in this industry is work stress. It has many sources:. Adjusting to work hours. Many workers in this industry are burdened by the necessity of adjusting to changing shifts, while flight crews who travel long east-west or west-east distances must adjust to changes in circadian body rhythms; both of these factors may cause drowsiness and fatigue.
The danger of functional impairment due to fatigue has led to laws and regulations stipulating the number of hours or shifts that may be worked without a rest period.
These are generally applicable to aviation flight crews, railroad train crews and, in most countries, drivers of road buses and trucks.
Many of the last group are independent contractors or work for small enterprises and are frequently forced by economic pressures to flout these regulations.
There are always emergencies dictated by problems with traffic, weather or accidents which require exceeding the work hours limits. Most passenger and a good part of freight transport is guided by timetables stipulating departure and arrival times. The necessity of keeping to schedules which often allow too little leeway is often a very potent stressor for the drivers and their crews. Dealing with the public.
Meeting the sometimes unreasonable and often forcefully expressed demands of the public can be a significant source of stress for those dealing with passengers at terminals and ticket offices and en route. Drivers of road transport must contend with other vehicles, traffic regulations and diligent highway traffic officers.
Accidents, whether due to equipment failure, human error or environmental conditions, place the transportation industry at or near the top of listings of occupational fatalities in most countries. Many employees in the transportation industry work alone with little or no human contact e. If problems arise, there may be difficulty and delays in getting help.
And, if they are not kept busy, boredom may lead to a drop in attentiveness that can presage accidents. Working alone, especially for those driving taxis, limousines and delivery trucks, is an important risk factor for felonious assaults and other forms of violence. Being away from home. Transportation workers are frequently required to be away from home for periods of days or weeks in the maritime industry, for months.
In addition to the stress of living out of a suitcase, strange food and strange sleeping accommodations, there is the reciprocal stress of separation from family and friends.
Most industrialized countries require transportation workers, especially drivers and operating crew members, to take periodic medical examinations to verify that their physical and mental capacities meet the requirements established by regulations. Visual and hearing acuity, colour vision, muscular strength and flexibility and freedom from causes of syncope are some of the factors tested for.
Accommodations, however, make it possible for many individuals with chronic disorders or disabilities to work without danger to themselves or others. In the United States, for example, employers are mandated by the federal Americans With Disabilities Act to provide such accommodations. Prescription and over-the-counter medications taken for a variety of disorders e. The health and safety of workers in the transportation and warehousing industry are critical considerations, not only for the workers themselves but also for the public being transported or involved as bystanders.
Safeguarding health and safety, therefore, is the joint responsibility of the employers, the employees and their unions and governments on all levels.
Christine Proctor, Edward A.
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Glossary of Maritime Terms
Below are some of the terms, acronyms, and abbreviations you may run into on this site and others on the web relating to inventory operations. The definitions are based on my understanding of the terms and may differ from others opinions. If you disagree with a definition or have additional definitions to submit please email me at email inventoryops. Content on InventoryOps. E-consulting options are available. Glossary of Inventory Management and Warehouse Operation Terms All definitions written by Dave Piasecki Below are some of the terms, acronyms, and abbreviations you may run into on this site and others on the web relating to inventory operations. Has also been applied to customer and vendor management. ABC stratification —method used to categorize inventory into groups based upon certain activity characteristics. ABC stratifications are used to develop inventory planning policies, set count frequencies for cycle counting, slot inventory for optimized order picking, and other inventory management activities.
This is where the spacecraft's pilot flies the ship. In fiction it is often the dramatic focus, even though without help from the astrogator, engineer, and ship's captain one will find that the pilot is helpless. Each spacecraft mission is composed of several " maneuvers ". In between maneuvers, the spacecraft is falling along a trajectory to its next maneuver.
Officer of the Watch. The majority of the information presented below has been compiled from various sources either from the internet or through personal day to day work experience and is being updated at regular intervals. Please do not hesitate to contact us for any queries or ideas for improvement of the maritime dictionary. Anchor billboard.
On the "front apron," cargo is unloaded from or loaded onto a ship. Behind the shed, cargo moves over the "rear apron" into and out of railroad cars. Barges have no locomotion and are pushed by towboats.
The transport sector encompasses industries that are involved in the transportation of goods and passengers throughout the world. This sector is structurally complex and vitally important to economies locally, nationally and globally. The transport sector is vitally important to the economic viability of nations. Transportation plays a key role in economically important factors such as employment, utilization of raw and manufactured goods, investment of private and public capital and generation of tax revenues. In the United States alone, the Department of Transportation reported that in , there were approximately 7.
Pipelines, marine vessels, tank trucks, rail tank cars and so forth are used to transport crude oils, compressed and liquefied hydrocarbon gases, liquid petroleum products and other chemicals from their point of origin to pipeline terminals, refineries, distributors and consumers. Crude oils and liquid petroleum products are transported, handled and stored in their natural liquid state. Hydrocarbon gases are transported, handled and stored in both the gaseous and liquid states and must be completely confined in pipelines, tanks, cylinders or other containers prior to use. The most important characteristic of liquefied hydrocarbon gases LHGs is that they are stored, handled and shipped as liquids, taking up a relatively small amount of space and then expanding into a gas when used. One gallon 3. It is generally the case that all crude oils, natural gas, liquefied natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas LPG and petroleum products flow through pipelines at some time in their migration from the well to a refinery or gas plant, then to a terminal and eventually to the consumer.
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Metal Building Accessory A building product that supplements a basic solid panel building such as a door, window, skylight, ventilator, etc. Agricultural Building A structure designed and constructed to house farm implements, hay, grain, poultry, livestock or other horticultural products. Such structure shall not include habitable or occupiable spaces, spaces in which agricultural products are processed, treated or packaged; nor shall an agricultural building be a place of occupancy by the general public.
A crane is a type of machine , generally equipped with a hoist rope , wire ropes or chains , and sheaves , that can be used both to lift and lower materials and to move them horizontally. It is mainly used for lifting heavy things and transporting them to other places. The device uses one or more simple machines to create mechanical advantage and thus move loads beyond the normal capability of a human. Cranes are commonly employed in the transport industry for the loading and unloading of freight, in the construction industry for the movement of materials, and in the manufacturing industry for the assembling of heavy equipment.
Ключ стоит в сотни раз больше того, что он платит мне за его хранение. - Извините, но ваш ключ сам по себе ничего не стоит. Как только Танкадо узнает о том, что вы сделали, он опубликует свою копию, и рынок рухнет. - Вы получите оба экземпляра, - прозвучал голос. - Мой и мистера Танкадо.
Шестью этажами ниже Стратмор стоял возле рубильника. В служебных помещениях ТРАНСТЕКСТА было черно как глубокой ночью. Минуту он наслаждался полной темнотой. Сверху хлестала вода, прямо как во время полночного шторма. Стратмор откинул голову назад, словно давая каплям возможность смыть с него вину.
- Дэвид. В этот момент в нескольких метрах под помещением шифровалки Стратмор сошел с лестницы на площадку. Сегодняшний день стал для него днем сплошных фиаско. То, что началось как в высшей степени патриотическая миссия, самым неожиданным образом вышло из-под контроля.