Factory commercial engineering equipment of buildings and structures
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- Modern Construction Machines and How They’re Used
- Structural engineering
- Buildings & Factories
- Low-rise commercial, institutional, and industrial buildings
- Structural Engineers: Roles and Responsibilities
- Steel Building Structural Steel FabricationsBy Professional Production Line
- Plant Layout Design
- Construction and trades
Modern Construction Machines and How They’re Used
For an engineer who is new to designing multi-storey buildings it is important that they follow a logical sequence through the various stages of the design process. Six steps that define this sequence are described below. Rules of thumb are included within each step to help the designer quickly and efficiently arrive at a solution that is sensible for a given set of constraints.
Two St. Peter's Square, Manchester. Four Pancras Square, London. Thirty Broadwick, London. Twentytwo, 22 Bishopsgate, London. Many of these stages include aspects of engineering design. A characteristic of steel framed construction is that the constituent parts of the structure are manufactured off-site, with all the quality and speed-on-site benefits that are associated with such a form of construction. An implication of this, however, is that the design must be substantially complete before construction steelwork fabrication can begin.
It is therefore important that the designer follows a logical sequence, as going back and revisiting earlier design decisions, once other parties involved have moved on to designing other parts of the building or manufacturing components, can be disproportionately expensive.
Some basic choices may have a significant impact on the ease, time and cost of both the fabrication and construction of a steel framed multi-storey building.
Keeping fabrication and construction in mind from the start will lead to the best possible solution. The designer should also avoid over-specification, a trivial example being that corrosion protection is not needed when steel components are used in many internal environments. Steel is a versatile material. Because of the different ways that steel beams can be configured, steel structures can be used to create flooring solutions that are competitive for spans ranging from 6m to over 20m.
Complexity and lack of familiarity are more likely to result in misunderstandings or misuse, and may cost more. Exotic solutions should only be used for exotic applications that justify the use of non-standard and unfamiliar solutions because of the other attributes they bring.
The impact of steel weight on building cost is interesting as there are conflicting drivers. Some things are quantifiable — in many countries labour is more expensive than materials so adopting a larger steel section rather than one that needs labour intensive fabrication , for example of stiffeners, can be more cost effective.
Against this argument, using more material may be associated with greater embodied energy and carbon. But the considerations are more complex than that because thicker plates also have greater resistance, for example to localised buckling , so the use of larger sections may:. The extent to which steel weight is minimised will therefore need to be considered on a project-by-project basis taking into account each of the above issues. Closely related to familiarity is standardisation.
Although the use of standard member sizes is less important than it used to be, given modern ways of modelling and fabrication , there may still be benefit in reducing the number of different member sizes used on a project. This desire for standardisation goes right down to the steel grade and bolt grades and sizes.
Rolled sections should only be specified in grade S steel or higher grade steel to ensure availability as well as performance benefits. However, for the fittings plates used for connections etc. Again, a key is to avoid mixing steel grades for components that look otherwise identical as this facilitates quality assurance. One of the main areas where standardisation is beneficial is the joints or connections as they are traditionally termed in the UK.
The use of standard joints means the design process is greatly simplified, for example because resistances are tabulated or software can be used more effectively, and the detailing will be acceptable to those who will fabricate and erect the steelwork — standardisation, simplicity, familiarity. Standard beam-to-column and beam-to-beam simple joints adopt one of the three following options, each with its own particular advantages and areas where it is less appropriate:.
Double angle cleats are no longer commonly used for simple connections in the UK. Standard joints use standard bolts typically either M20 or M24 Property Class 8. Welded joints are normally restricted to the fabrication shop, where conditions are much more suitable. Bolted site joints have the additional benefit of facilitating deconstruction. The steel frame itself represents only a small part of the overall cost of a building. However, how the frame is designed and detailed may affect the cost of more expensive components it interfaces with.
Interfaces is an area where attention to detail can pay real dividends. There are basically two things to consider at an interface:. When different tolerances need to be accommodated it is much better to achieve this through design and detailing than through remedial work on site. So, for example, when steelwork is to be connected to a concrete core , the use of brackets that permit adjustments in two orthogonal directions through the use of slotted holes should be envisaged from the outset.
Six steps are chosen to split the design process into a logical sequence from early scheme design consideration through to detailed design. They cover:. The basic building shape will normally be chosen, or at least heavily influenced, by other members of the design team.
It will often be dictated by site restrictions, be they physical or regulatory such as planning restrictions. Other aspects of a given site that may favour a certain building frame solution include any access and height restrictions. In a congested city centre using prefabricated elements may be attractive, to minimise the number of vehicles needed to bring all the materials to site.
If access routes are of limited width, or have certain other particular characteristics, these may impact on the size of components, or sub structures, that can be delivered.
If there is a restriction on the overall height of a building it may favour the use of shallow floor solutions , even though their spanning ability is less than other steel options, to minimise floor depth and therefore maximise the number of floors and lettable floor space that can be accommodated within the overall height. In addition to any peculiarities of a given site, there may be particular requirements for the building and its use.
For some types of use there are specific, published requirements, such as the Building Bulletins for Education buildings and the Health Technical Memoranda for Healthcare buildings. Particular requirements may include:. If the building is speculative the developer may want maximum flexibility for floor use, services etc. BS EN  presents minimum imposed floor loads for different building uses.
As well as the self-weight of the floors, an additional load of 0. To achieve maximum lettable floor space the design should balance the number of floors against floor-to-floor height, paying attention to the intended building use. The target floor to floor height is based on a floor to ceiling height of 2. The following target floor to floor depths as shown in the table below should be considered at the concept design stage:. Shallow floor systems can be helpful for a designer trying to achieve the right balance.
Although they tend to have a higher cost per unit area, the reduced floor depth may provide the designer with:. The weight and cost of a structural frame per unit of floor area gross internal area increases with height, because the wind loading increases disproportionately and this has a significant impact on the design of the frame. The increasing cost per square metre is shown for a range of building heights in the cost table below.
Stability system. The resistance of a steel frame against horizontal loading can be achieved in a number of ways. The most appropriate choice depends on the scale of building:. It is also possible to provide lateral stability by using a continuous frame — one where there is moment continuity between the beams and columns to limit the sway of the frame. However, whilst such a solution would enable, for example, full glazed walls , the connection detailing will be significantly more onerous, as will be the design.
Unless there are specific building requirements that cannot be satisfied using an alternative, such a solution will be a disproportionately expensive way of assuring frame stability. Whatever assures the stability of a frame needs to be able to resist lateral loads applied in two directions, plus a torque. In a braced frame building, the resistance to horizontal forces is provided by two orthogonal bracing systems:.
Vertical bracing in vertical planes between lines of columns provides load paths to transfer horizontal forces to ground level and provide a stiff resistance against overall sway As a minimum, three vertical planes of bracing are needed, to provide resistance in both directions in plan and to provide resistance to torsion about a vertical axis.
In practice, more than three are usually provided, for example in the locations shown diagrammatically in the figure right. Typical arrangement of vertical bracing. Roof horizontal bracing using a truss wind girder. At each floor level, bracing in a horizontal plane, generally provided by floor plate action , provides a load path to transfer the horizontal forces mainly from the perimeter columns, due to wind pressure on the cladding to the planes of vertical bracing.
At roof level, a truss wind girder may be used to provide a horizontal bracing system, if there is no slab. See figure left. Having recognised any building specific requirements, decided on the most appropriate number of floors and, in general terms, how the frame will be stabilised against horizontal loading , the designer should start to consider in more detail how the frame will be laid out.
The structural grid is defined principally by a regular spacing of columns, with the primary beams spanning between columns, secondary beams spanning between the primary beams, and floor slabs spanning between the secondary beams.
Wherever possible the beams are laid out in an orthogonal arrangement to provide rectangular floor plates as this arrangement enables simple orthogonal connection details between beams and columns to be adopted. Floor grids define the spacing of the columns in orthogonal directions, which are influenced by:. Beam spans typically fall into the range of 6m to 16m, with over 12m spans being very common on commercial office schemes.
Slabs typically span between 3m and 6m. The table below shows typical spans for various commonly used floor systems. Although opting for a long span solution will increase internal flexibility and maximise the lettable floor space, it should be recognised that spanning ability is only one of the attributes of a given flooring solution. They are also differentiated in terms of fabrication cost , ease of erection , ease of service integration , cost of fire protection , required structural depth for a given span.
A designer should decide on the best overall compromise for a given application, remembering the basic mantra of standardisation, simplicity, familiarity.
The table shows the relative merits for common floor systems in multi-storey buildings. For a building where horizontal services are to be accommodated and integrated within the structural floor depth, deep primary beams with holes in their webs to allow the services to pass through , combined with shallow and therefore short spanning secondary beams is a common choice. Alternatively one may use long secondary and short primary beams, chosen so they are all the same depth.
Two of the more common composite floor systems are shown below. The benefits of composite slab floors using downstand beams , shallow floors including precast slabs , together with the choice of long span beams should be considered holistically and in the context of the specific project under development.
More specifically, cost comparison studies have shown that for 3 to 4 storey buildings a composite beam and slab option is likely to be the most economical where the optimum grid size for this type of floor system is typically 7.
For a typical 8 storey city centre office building, cellular beams and composite slabs were shown to be the most economical. For this size of building a typical optimum grid size of 7. Once the grids are established it is possible to estimate preliminary sizes of the beams using some rules of thumb for span to depth ratios. An estimation of the preliminary sizes of the beams using some rules of thumb for span to depth ratios for the floor systems mentioned above is presented in the table.
The PEB system is the intelligent solution for organisations desiring to deliver large scale production and projects. Flexible, reliable commercial storage and warehousing needs to be built rapidly and affordably to respond to growth. Can be considered one of the most daring buildings in LGS executed in Brazil until today, this construction was challenging. Another success story and an example of innovation and sustainability, as after dismantling of the structure, we reassemble it in another location can be used for commercial rooms. As experts in cold formed steel CFS construction, FrameTech knew exactly which method they would use to bring that space to life.
It must be accurate and cost-effective to accelerate progress. As a renowned construction engineering company , SAGU Engineering knows this better than anyone else. At SAGU Engineering, we specialise in machining, surface coating, automatic disinfection, welding and industrial construction services. Our aim is to save you the trouble of manufacturing top-notch structures and spending a great deal of money when doing so. By partnering with 5 Turkey-based factories, we are capable of delivering the best engineering solutions and unmatched quality in every single part of your project.
Buildings & Factories
Keep up with us! The use of heavy equipment in the engineering and construction industry has a long history dating back to at least 1 st century BC. The ancient Roman architect and civil engineer, Marcus Vitruvius Pollio, described cranes and other construction equipment in his treatise, De architectura. Heavy machines were pulled by horses or humans until the 19 th century and engineering technology has steadily progressed since then. Depending on its application, construction machines are typically classified in one of four categories:. There are many different types of earth moving equipment, including excavators, loaders, motor graders, trenchers, bull dozers, and backhoes. These machines are used to shift large amounts of dirt, dig foundations, and landscape areas. Excavators, for example, are commonly used to dig trenches, cut brush in forests, demolish buildings, and dredge rivers. Backhoe loaders typically combined with a tractor and have a front bucket or shovel with a small backhoe in the rear.
Structural engineering is a sub-discipline of civil engineering in which structural engineers are trained to design the 'bones and muscles' that create the form and shape of man made structures. Structural engineers need to understand and calculate the stability, strength and rigidity of built structures for buildings  and nonbuilding structures. The structural designs are integrated with those of other designers such as architects and building services engineer and often supervise the construction of projects by contractors on site. See glossary of structural engineering.
The size of buildings in the commercial, institutional, and industrial market segment ranges from a few hundred to as much as 45, square metres , square feet. All of these buildings have public access and exit requirements, although their populations may differ considerably in density. The unit costs are generally higher than those for dwellings although those of simple industrial buildings may be lower , and this type includes buildings with the highest unit cost, such as hospitals and laboratories.
Low-rise commercial, institutional, and industrial buildings
Advance Civil Group is a leader in providing value-added construction services to our customers by creating a successful partnership with them throughout the construction process. Our pledge is to establish lasting relationships with our customers by exceeding their expectations and gaining their trust through exceptional performance by every member of the construction team. With more than 60 projects completed, we are more than ready to offer you the best construction service to our customers. However, the most important thing we build is relationships.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: PEB, Pre Engineered Buildings, PEB Manufacturer - Jindal Prefab
A plant engineer is responsible for a wide range of industrial activities, and may work in any industry. The Plant Engineer's Reference Book 2nd Edition is a reference work designed to provide a primary source of information for the plant engineer. Subjects include the selection of a suitable site for a factory and provision of basic facilities, including boilers, electrical systems, water, HVAC systems, pumping systems and floors and finishes. Detailed chapters deal with basic issues such as lubrication, corrosion, energy conservation, maintenance and materials handling as well as environmental considerations, insurance matters and financial concerns. Produced with the backing of the Institution of Plant Engineers, the Plant Engineer's Reference Book, 2nd Edition provides complete coverage of the information needed by plant engineers in any industry worldwide. Account Options Sign in.
Structural Engineers: Roles and Responsibilities
For an engineer who is new to designing multi-storey buildings it is important that they follow a logical sequence through the various stages of the design process. Six steps that define this sequence are described below. Rules of thumb are included within each step to help the designer quickly and efficiently arrive at a solution that is sensible for a given set of constraints. Two St. Peter's Square, Manchester.
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Steel Building Structural Steel FabricationsBy Professional Production Line
In cases where these groupings correspond with major groups, the major group heading is also in italics. This group includes the demolition or wrecking of buildings and other structures, the preparation of building sites and the sale of materials from demolished structures. Blasting, test drilling, landfill, levelling, earth-moving, excavating, land drainage and other land preparation.
Plant Layout Design
Building services engineering is a professional engineering discipline that strives to achieve a safe and comfortable indoor environment whilst minimizing the environmental impact of a building. The term Building services engineering is widely used in Commonwealth countries incl. United Kingdom , Ireland , Canada and Australia , but in the United States of America , the field is also known as Building systems engineering , Architectural engineering or Building engineering , though the latter two disciplines generally have a broader scope, also encompassing elements of Structural engineering and more traditional architectural tasks such as room planning and material selection.
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Construction and trades
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