Manufacture commercial processing products of fruits, vegetables, mushrooms, including fruit and veg
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- California Economy
- Fruit and Vegetable Prices
- Processing and Preservation of Fresh-Cut Fruit and Vegetable Products
- Development and production of machines and installations for the food processing industry
- Fruit and Vegetable Marketing for Small-Scale and Part-Time Growers
- Marketing standards for fresh fruit and vegetables
Vegetables are parts of plants that are consumed by humans or other animals as food. The original meaning is still commonly used and is applied to plants collectively to refer to all edible plant matter, including the flowers , fruits , stems , leaves , roots , and seeds. The alternate definition of the term vegetable is applied somewhat arbitrarily, often by culinary and cultural tradition. It may exclude foods derived from some plants that are fruits , flowers , nuts , and cereal grains, but include savoury fruits such as tomatoes and courgettes , flowers such as broccoli , and seeds such as pulses.
Originally, vegetables were collected from the wild by hunter-gatherers and entered cultivation in several parts of the world, probably during the period 10, BC to 7, BC, when a new agricultural way of life developed. At first, plants which grew locally would have been cultivated, but as time went on, trade brought exotic crops from elsewhere to add to domestic types. Nowadays, most vegetables are grown all over the world as climate permits, and crops may be cultivated in protected environments in less suitable locations.
China is the largest producer of vegetables, and global trade in agricultural products allows consumers to purchase vegetables grown in faraway countries. The scale of production varies from subsistence farmers supplying the needs of their family for food, to agribusinesses with vast acreages of single-product crops.
Depending on the type of vegetable concerned, harvesting the crop is followed by grading, storing, processing, and marketing. Vegetables can be eaten either raw or cooked and play an important role in human nutrition, being mostly low in fat and carbohydrates, but high in vitamins, minerals and dietary fiber.
Many nutritionists encourage people to consume plenty of fruit and vegetables, five or more portions a day often being recommended. The word vegetable was first recorded in English in the early 15th century. It comes from Old French ,  and was originally applied to all plants; the word is still used in this sense in biological contexts. The meaning of "vegetable" as a "plant grown for food" was not established until the 18th century.
The year saw the first use of the shortened, slang term "veggie". As an adjective , the word vegetable is used in scientific and technical contexts with a different and much broader meaning, namely of "related to plants" in general, edible or not—as in vegetable matter , vegetable kingdom , vegetable origin , etc. The exact definition of "vegetable" may vary simply because of the many parts of a plant consumed as food worldwide—roots, stems, leaves, flowers, fruits, and seeds.
The broadest definition is the word's use adjectivally to mean "matter of plant origin". More specifically, a vegetable may be defined as "any plant, part of which is used for food",  a secondary meaning then being "the edible part of such a plant". In the latter-mentioned definition of "vegetable", which is used in everyday language, the words " fruit " and "vegetable" are mutually exclusive.
This is considerably different from the word's culinary meaning. While peaches , plums , and oranges are "fruit" in both senses, many items commonly called "vegetables", such as eggplants , bell peppers , and tomatoes , are botanically fruits.
The question of whether the tomato is a fruit or a vegetable found its way into the United States Supreme Court in The court ruled unanimously in Nix v. Hedden that a tomato is correctly identified as, and thus taxed as, a vegetable, for the purposes of the Tariff of on imported produce. The court did acknowledge, however, that, botanically speaking, a tomato is a fruit.
Before the advent of agriculture , humans were hunter-gatherers. They foraged for edible fruit, nuts, stems, leaves, corms, and tubers, scavenged for dead animals and hunted living ones for food. Plant breeding through the selection of strains with desirable traits such as large fruit and vigorous growth soon followed. Throughout recorded history, the rich have been able to afford a varied diet including meat, vegetables and fruit, but for poor people, meat was a luxury and the food they ate was very dull, typically comprising mainly some staple product made from rice, rye, barley, wheat, millet or maize.
The addition of vegetable matter provided some variety to the diet. The staple diet of the Aztecs in Central America was maize and they cultivated tomatoes , avocados , beans , peppers , pumpkins , squashes , peanuts , and amaranth seeds to supplement their tortillas and porridge.
In Peru, the Incas subsisted on maize in the lowlands and potatoes at higher altitudes. They also used seeds from quinoa , supplementing their diet with peppers, tomatoes, and avocados. In Ancient China , rice was the staple crop in the south and wheat in the north, the latter made into dumplings , noodles , and pancakes. Vegetables used to accompany these included yams , soybeans , broad beans , turnips , spring onions , and garlic.
The diet of the ancient Egyptians was based on bread , often contaminated with sand which wore away their teeth. Meat was a luxury but fish was more plentiful. These were accompanied by a range of vegetables including marrows, broad beans, lentils, onions, leeks, garlic, radishes, and lettuces.
The mainstay of the Ancient Greek diet was bread, and this was accompanied by goat's cheese, olives, figs, fish, and occasionally meat.
The vegetables grown included onions, garlic, cabbages, melons, and lentils. The Romans grew broad beans, peas, onions and turnips and ate the leaves of beets rather than their roots.
Vegetables play an important role in human nutrition. Most are low in fat and calories but are bulky and filling. Particularly important are the antioxidant vitamins A , C , and E. When vegetables are included in the diet, there is found to be a reduction in the incidence of cancer, stroke, cardiovascular disease, and other chronic ailments. However, vegetables often also contain toxins and antinutrients which interfere with the absorption of nutrients.
Some beans contain phytohaemagglutinin , and cassava roots contain cyanogenic glycoside as do bamboo shoots. These toxins can be deactivated by adequate cooking. Green potatoes contain glycoalkaloids and should be avoided. Fruit and vegetables, particularly leafy vegetables, have been implicated in nearly half the gastrointestinal infections caused by norovirus in the United States.
These foods are commonly eaten raw and may become contaminated during their preparation by an infected food handler. Hygiene is important when handling foods to be eaten raw, and such products need to be properly cleaned, handled, and stored to limit contamination.
Potatoes are not included in the count as they are mainly providers of starch. For most vegetables and vegetable juices, one serving is half of a cup and can be eaten raw or cooked. For leafy greens, such as lettuce and spinach , a single serving is typically a full cup. International dietary guidelines are similar to the ones established by the USDA. Japan , for example, recommends the consumption of five to six servings of vegetables daily.
Vegetables have been part of the human diet from time immemorial. Some are staple foods but most are accessory foodstuffs, adding variety to meals with their unique flavors and at the same time, adding nutrients necessary for health. Some vegetables are perennials but most are annuals and biennials , usually harvested within a year of sowing or planting. Whatever system is used for growing crops, cultivation follows a similar pattern; preparation of the soil by loosening it, removing or burying weeds, and adding organic manures or fertilisers; sowing seeds or planting young plants; tending the crop while it grows to reduce weed competition, control pests, and provide sufficient water; harvesting the crop when it is ready; sorting, storing, and marketing the crop or eating it fresh from the ground.
Different soil types suit different crops, but in general in temperate climates, sandy soils dry out fast but warm up quickly in the spring and are suitable for early crops, while heavy clays retain moisture better and are more suitable for late season crops. The growing season can be lengthened by the use of fleece , cloches , plastic mulch , polytunnels , and greenhouses. On a domestic scale, the spade, fork, and hoe are the tools of choice while on commercial farms a range of mechanical equipment is available.
Besides tractors, these include ploughs , harrows , drills , transplanters , cultivators , irrigation equipment, and harvesters. New techniques are changing the cultivation procedures involved in growing vegetables with computer monitoring systems, GPS locators, and self-steer programs for driverless machines giving economic benefits. When a vegetable is harvested, it is cut off from its source of water and nourishment.
It continues to transpire and loses moisture as it does so, a process most noticeable in the wilting of green leafy crops. Harvesting root vegetables when they are fully mature improves their storage life, but alternatively, these root crops can be left in the ground and harvested over an extended period. The harvesting process should seek to minimise damage and bruising to the crop. Onions and garlic can be dried for a few days in the field and root crops such as potatoes benefit from a short maturation period in warm, moist surroundings, during which time wounds heal and the skin thickens up and hardens.
Before marketing or storage, grading needs to be done to remove damaged goods and select produce according to its quality, size, ripeness, and color. All vegetables benefit from proper post harvest care. A large proportion of vegetables and perishable foods are lost after harvest during the storage period. These losses may be as high as thirty to fifty percent in developing countries where adequate cold storage facilities are not available. The main causes of loss include spoilage caused by moisture, moulds, micro-organisms, and vermin.
Storage can be short-term or long-term. Most vegetables are perishable and short-term storage for a few days provides flexibility in marketing. During storage, leafy vegetables lose moisture , and the vitamin C in them degrades rapidly. A few products such as potatoes and onions have better keeping qualities and can be sold when higher prices may be available, and by extending the marketing season, a greater total volume of crop can be sold. If refrigerated storage is not available, the priority for most crops is to store high-quality produce, to maintain a high humidity level, and to keep the produce in the shade.
Proper post-harvest storage aimed at extending and ensuring shelf life is best effected by efficient cold chain application. There are temperature-controlling technologies that do not require the use of electricity such as evaporative cooling.
The irradiation of vegetables and other agricultural produce by ionizing radiation can be used to preserve it from both microbial infection and insect damage, as well as from physical deterioration. It can extend the storage life of food without noticeably changing its properties. The objective of preserving vegetables is to extend their availability for consumption or marketing purposes.
The aim is to harvest the food at its maximum state of palatability and nutritional value, and preserve these qualities for an extended period.
The main causes of deterioration in vegetables after they are gathered are the actions of naturally-occurring enzymes and the spoilage caused by micro-organisms.
Canning is a process during which the enzymes in vegetables are deactivated and the micro-organisms present killed by heat. The sealed can excludes air from the foodstuff to prevent subsequent deterioration.
The lowest necessary heat and the minimum processing time are used in order to prevent the mechanical breakdown of the product and to preserve the flavor as far as is possible.
The can is then able to be stored at ambient temperatures for a long period. The enzyme action will merely be inhibited, and blanching of suitably sized prepared vegetables before freezing mitigates this and prevents off-flavors developing. Not all micro-organisms will be killed at these temperatures and after thawing the vegetables should be used promptly because otherwise, any microbes present may proliferate.
Traditionally, sun drying has been used for some products such as tomatoes, mushrooms, and beans, spreading the produce on racks and turning the crop at intervals. This method suffers from several disadvantages including lack of control over drying rates, spoilage when drying is slow, contamination by dirt, wetting by rain, and attack by rodents, birds, and insects.
These disadvantages can be alleviated by using solar powered driers.
Fruit and Vegetable Prices
ERS research in this topic area focuses on the economic, social, spatial, temporal, and demographic factors that affect the poverty status of rural residents. ERS conducts research on USDA's child nutrition programs and their role in children's food security, diets, and well-being. The data include historical U. ERS compares the prices paid by consumers for food with the prices received by farmers for their corresponding commodities.
Processing and Preservation of Fresh-Cut Fruit and Vegetable Products
Vegetables are parts of plants that are consumed by humans or other animals as food. The original meaning is still commonly used and is applied to plants collectively to refer to all edible plant matter, including the flowers , fruits , stems , leaves , roots , and seeds. The alternate definition of the term vegetable is applied somewhat arbitrarily, often by culinary and cultural tradition. It may exclude foods derived from some plants that are fruits , flowers , nuts , and cereal grains, but include savoury fruits such as tomatoes and courgettes , flowers such as broccoli , and seeds such as pulses. Originally, vegetables were collected from the wild by hunter-gatherers and entered cultivation in several parts of the world, probably during the period 10, BC to 7, BC, when a new agricultural way of life developed. At first, plants which grew locally would have been cultivated, but as time went on, trade brought exotic crops from elsewhere to add to domestic types. Nowadays, most vegetables are grown all over the world as climate permits, and crops may be cultivated in protected environments in less suitable locations. China is the largest producer of vegetables, and global trade in agricultural products allows consumers to purchase vegetables grown in faraway countries.
Development and production of machines and installations for the food processing industry
Freezing is one of the oldest and most widely used methods of food preservation, which allows preservation of taste, texture, and nutritional value in foods better than any other method. The freezing process is a combination of the beneficial effects of low temperatures at which microorganisms cannot grow, chemical reactions are reduced, and cellular metabolic reactions are delayed Delgado and Sun, Freezing preservation retains the quality of agricultural products over long storage periods. As a method of long-term preservation for fruits and vegetables, freezing is generally regarded as superior to canning and dehydration, with respect to retention in sensory attributes and nutritive properties Fennema,
Although the Safe Food for Canadians Regulations SFCR came into force on January 15, , certain requirements are being phased in over the following 12 to 30 months. For more information, refer to the SFCR timelines. The SFCR specify whether you need a licence based on the activities you conduct, and not based on the type of business. To find out whether you need a licence, the best place to start is the Licensing interactive tool.
Fruit and Vegetable Marketing for Small-Scale and Part-Time Growers
Based on the long historical relationship with Ahold Delhaize, Bakker Belgium has been selected by Delhaize as the Greenyard Foods NV engages in the supply and delivery of fruits and vegetables. Consult contact data, management and financial key figures for Greenyard Transport Belgium from St. It offers a range of fresh, frozen, and canned fruit and vegetables. Fresh, frozen or prepared.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: vegetable and fruits dryer machine
California supports a large and diverse economy with the highest economic production among the states. If California were a country, it would rank around tenth in the value of goods and services produced. California's service industries, as a group, make up the largest part of the state's gross product. California leads all of the other states in farm income. It's positioned as the agricultural powerhouse of the United States.
Marketing standards for fresh fruit and vegetables
By Afam I. Jideani, Tonna A. Anyasi, Godwin R. Mchau, Elohor O. Udoro and Oluwatoyin O. Fruits and vegetables are plant derived products which can be consumed in its raw form without undergoing processing or conversion. Fresh-cut fruits and vegetables FFV are products that have been cleaned, peeled, sliced, cubed or prepared for convenience or ready-to-eat consumption but remains in a living and respiring physiological condition. Methods of preserving FFV to retain its wholesomeness includes washing with hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide, organic acids, warm water and ozone for disinfestation and sanitization; use of antimicrobial edible films and coatings; and controlled atmosphere storage and modified atmosphere packaging of fruits and vegetables.
Imported Vegetables. Greengoose distribute fresh fruit and vegetables. Vegging Out is a blog for all things natural, local and nutritionally good, including seasonal food, local food, nutrition, recipes, bees, crafts, gardening and composting. This regulation also applies to wholly foreign owned entities operating in Qatar.
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Known as King of Thai fruits, durian Longan Lychee Mangosteen is distinctive with aroma and a good taste. Find major Canadian importers based on the country from which they are importing. Trade association for the fresh fruit, vegetable and flower industry, representing retailers, wholesalers, importers and packers. Import and export plants and fresh produce When importing plants or fresh fruit and veg from outside the EU into the UK for commercial use, there are certain steps you must take.
Скорее всего идет по его следу пешком. Беккер с трудом вел мотоцикл по крутым изломам улочки. Урчащий мотор шумным эхо отражался от стен, и он понимал, что это с головой выдает его в предутренней тишине квартала Санта-Крус.
В данный момент у него только одно преимущество - скорость. Я должен поскорее выбраться отсюда.
Старик умиротворенно вздохнул. - Так гораздо лучше… спасибо. - Pas du tout, - отозвался Беккер. - О! - Старик радостно улыбнулся. - Так вы говорите на языке цивилизованного мира. - Да вроде бы, - смущенно проговорил Беккер.
- Это не так важно, - горделиво заявил Клушар.
Он вел себя бесчестно по отношению ко многим людям, и Сьюзан Флетчер - одна из. Он очень о многом ей не сказал - о многих вещах, которых теперь стыдился. Она была его иллюзией, его живой фантазией.