Manufacture industry research and referee-information sports instruments and devices
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Research on Sports Electronic Instrument and Equipment
Contemporary professional football and sports entities have embraced technology and data to boost sporting quality. However, this development has gone beyond the playing field as technology and data also start to play a larger role in improving business performances in the football sports industry.
This chapter looks into how technology and data in the form of sports tracking systems, cf. The intensified commercialization in football from technology and data takes fandom to new heights and bring about new revenue generating opportunities. However, harnessing the increased amounts of data is associated with technical challenges and financial and human resource constraints.
Therefore, the technology and data implementation in professional football needs to undergo a qualification process to secure that the applied data co-exists with a context of competent knowledge-sharing, individual and organizational learning in order to positively develop sporting and business performances. Sports technology and sports data have become integral parts of sports development and performances [ 1 — 4 ].
As seen in relation to how technology and data play a role in improving player development and sporting performances, the business side of sports has also embraced the upsides of technology and data analytics [ 5 ]. In doing so, focus is primarily on football soccer in the US but the study also integrates relevant perspectives from this context associated with other sports.
This chapter is based on case study methodology [ 6 — 11 ], in which the case of the ZXY sports tracking system is the focal point. The chapter also includes data regarding other tracking systems than ZXY for a broader discussion and understanding of the context of sports tracking and how that influences sports, e.
The chapter involves critical methodological reflections and takes the commercialization and professionalization of the football economy into consideration as vital contextual factors, i. The case study applies an in-depth qualitative approach, which encompasses the dynamic context in which sporting actions and experiences take place [ 12 ]. Hence, research cannot be isolated from time and context [ 13 ].
The relevance of the case study is grounded in the methodology and its qualitative nature, i. The qualitative foundation bridges a knowledge gap in sport management research as this case study goes beyond the explanation of statistics to investigate and understand a dynamic sports context at a time where technology and data are on the rise.
The system went through a development process in collaboration with Norwegian Olympic Sport, the Norwegian top football club Rosenborg Ballklub and Radionor Communications. The method to develop the data measurement has its roots in technology linked to military radio signals [ 14 ].
The first generation of the system was released in and tested by the collaborative partners. The latter already functioned as an established part of many football clubs and leagues. In practice, the ZXY solution works by players carrying a belt around their waistline, e. The system incorporated in the belt sends data to the radio receivers, which are installed in the venue or at the training facility as the system is functional for game as well as training situations.
The quality of the data transmission is enhanced by the fact that data transmission takes place 20 times per second 2. The user experience is adaptable by allowing physical trainers or other specialist staff at clubs, leagues and federations to determine what to measure and how to apply and present the measurements. Additionally, the system is able to incorporate the use of video cameras to increase the focus on players.
Personalized video measurements provide data synchronized in time from body sensors combined with position sensors in the venue or at the training facility. Distance in relation to different types of movement, e. The combination of the two technologies helps to automate Tracab as the ZXY system constantly and precisely knows the position of the player on the playing field.
A qualitative methodology was selected as the most applicable practice to explore the experiences and understanding of the meaning related to technology and data in sport [ 20 , 21 ]. Nevertheless, the purposively selected sampling process [ 23 , 24 ] in this instrumental case study 3 is chosen to enhance the context-specific validity of the findings and thus to expand the interest for and application of the results within the context of technology and data in sports beyond the case of ZXY.
Therefore, the metatheoretical nature of this research takes a stance associated with scientific traditions from pragmatism [ 25 ] and symbolic interactionism [ 26 , 27 ] to explore the experiences, thoughts and meanings of the respondents regarding the application of technology and data in a context of sports and in particular football. The qualitative design of this research provides insights from experienced industry professionals in the form of their experiences from utilizing technology and data to improve sporting performances and to enhance commercialization in football.
So, the aim is to let the data speak for themselves, but to do so while systematically, critically and contextually analyzing and interpreting the data. Grounded theory and qualitative open coding are used to analyze the transcribed interview data based on analysis, study, comparison, conceptualization, and categorization of the data [ 22 , 28 ].
The two focus group interviews were completed in the same venue to accommodate a constructive interaction between all respondents, which is significant for new idea generation and to illustrate meanings and experiences of respondents.
The interpretivist research paradigm emphasizes the importance that the coding and data analysis is grounded in context-relevant literature, theories, knowledge and professional experiences and competences.
The intent is to create a knowledge-producing process associated with the capability to contextualize and recontextualize a context of technology and data application concerning sporting and business performance improvements in professional football and other sports. Therefore, the discussions are not covering the application of technology and data from a holistic angle; this is a reflection of the fact that many different metrics drive decision-making in football.
For instance, there is a difference between the tradeoff between a risky pass versus the consequences of losing possession versus the potential benefit of a scoring chance that may be created just to mention a few focal points from decision- makers in the world of football.
Today, professional sports are characterized by the search for new paths concerning how an athlete or a team may apply new technologies and sports performance data to gain the cutting-edge competitive ability that will elevate them to the top of the podium or to win major league or championship titles [ 29 — 31 ].
Therefore, professional sports properties are left with massive data pools that without giving away competitive sporting advantages can be utilized to assist athletes and teams in monetizing on their relationships with commercial stakeholders.
In reflections over why the application of technology and data is important in sports, there are clear benefits in terms of optimizing decision-making processes on and off the playing field and thus sporting quality. There is no doubt that the application of technology and data is beneficial in professional sports. Kerr and Gladden [ 32 ] argue that connected technological environments to some extent provide an open-source approach for sports teams to interact with their stakeholders.
For instance, this may take place via mobile apps of the teams as suggested by Watkins and Lewis [ 33 ]. Reasons to go in that direction are clear. One practical example is the current Danish football champions FC Midtjylland that invested in an app solution in to boost engagement with fans.
The idea was to bring fans closer to the club and to produce good fan experiences by providing fans with exclusive news and better insights about the players and their performances. The financial situation of professional sports teams is boosted by good sporting performances. Better sporting performances may be supported by technology and data and can help to enhance the entire business model and the backing from fans and other stakeholders in relation to revenue generation from various sources [ 34 ], e.
Couvelaere and Richelieu [ 35 ] consider the importance of sports teams engaging themselves in a way that is synergistic with the lives of their fans in order to bring the brand of the team to life by letting fans live it. Now, years have passed since the publication of their scientific article.
Technology and data have become manifested elements of professional sports in the hunt for enhanced and elevated performance platforms. Additionally, their application reaches beyond that of professional sports and even targets fans and consumers outside the spotlighted playing fields in professional sports.
In the aftermath of this development, actors in the professional sports industry underline the importance of technology and data as being directly associated with winning titles. However, the vital role of technology and data in influencing sporting performances is clear but there is reasonable meaning in acknowledging that technology and data are only tools and not a universal quick fix to performance challenges in professional sports. Consequently, technology and data do not solve cultural problem areas in sports.
For instance, such complexity is apparent in the management of professional team sports and one may similarly argue that the same difficulties exist in professional individual sports, e.
Yet, the point of this discussion is that technology and data may support decision-making although not being the solution in their isolated capability.
What do you do with your forty million to avoid humiliating defeat? As pointed out, sports organizations may benefit from theoretical grounding and scientific methods to understand and influence sporting performances positively and thus to enhance business performance as a derived effect.
For instance, it holds essential meaning that the application of technology and data is based on a solid understanding of the interplay between various contextual factors and the importance of timing when executing performance-based decisions, e. It is imperative to have a platform of knowledge before decisions are made. This knowledge is often mixed with intuition and passion, e. From a critical perspective, the quality of the application of technology and data in professional sports is also subject to bias as there is always a person behind the data.
This may exist when the sport organization applies technology and data to find evidence, which supports predetermined conclusions about a given athlete, who hypothetically underperforms on specific parameters. It may be associated with predetermined conclusions that there are lazy players on the roster for what reason it becomes a way to punish all players with a salary cut.
Despite this managerial complexity, the application of technology and data adds value to sporting performances in team sports, e. This inspires the potential to optimize sporting performances via positive influence on the sporting quality, on the outcome of the game, and the associated learning. Managing sporting performance through the application of technology and data also stresses the significance of differences between sports.
For example, the sport of football is a complex sport. One may argue that it is more complex than some other team sports, e. This means that the players are not necessarily close to the goal for what reason decision-makers on and off the pitch have to figure out how to get into situations with the opportunity to score. That is different in other team sports such as basketball, baseball or team handball. In football, all of the players except for the goalkeeper have to do all the skills, unlike American baseball, where an outfielder does not really handle ground balls that are moving quickly.
Basketball has become more like football in that even big men are expected to be better dribblers, passers, etc. You have so many more phases of play. The complexity of some sports over others, e.
There are also more naturally occurring statistics in basketball such as field goal percentage, rebounds, steals, etc. Basketball is now tracking passing in a way similar to how football does, which looks at how the pass improves the situation on the field not just whether it was received or struck cleanly. Moreover, it means that there is a lot of potential for technology and data since there are many opportunities that have yet to be fulfilled.
The points regarding football is rooted in the debates, discussions, decisions also for qualified application in professional clubs and consumption 5 of the sport.
However, technology and data applicants with a deeper understanding of the game know it is fine to run a lot, e. Therefore, players should run intelligently. It helps to be fast in football but not if you run out of the stadium with the ball.
And so, for a number to mean something you have to correlate it. And to correlate it in a proper kind of way, you have to build a model and the best models out there use Bayesian inference 6. The big challenge for sport organizations is to incorporate the data to a more qualified extent on and off the playing field. It can be done by raising the expectations for the positive outcome of working with technology and data by qualifying data via further sophistication and holistic analysis in the form of data correlations.
So, I have a set of outcomes that I expect whenever I see something because of my internal mental model. Thus, working with data and incorporating them into a specific sports context and thereby bringing them to life makes a meaningful difference. The latter includes becoming a powerful touchpoint for fans watching the game in the stadium, on television or on a second screen and thus getting a richer fan experience, e. Concerning the sporting performance, technology should not only be a means to collect data to tell a story.
The purpose should be to gain a more complete understanding of the sport, e. Football is, as mentioned before, a very complicated game in that sense. Combined with tactical understanding, the data stimulates other play solutions than the area around the first post when crossing the ball from the right flank. Vamplew [ 39 ] argues that theories or suggestions without validated evidence just function as competing hypotheses.
This means that they may assist our understanding but cannot entirely explain the dynamics of a context. It is complicated to guide sport organizations to apply technology and data as there are many elements to be studied; this is especially true in complex sports like football.
Vault Guide to Sports Jobs, Second Edition
In association football , goal-line technology sometimes referred to as a Goal Decision System  is the use of electronic aid to determine if a goal has been scored or not. In detail, it is a method used to determine when the ball has completely crossed the goal line in between the goal-posts and underneath crossbar with the assistance of electronic devices and at the same time assisting the referee in awarding a goal or not. The objective of goal-line technology GLT is not to replace the role of the officials, but rather to support them in their decision-making. The GLT must provide a clear indication as to whether the ball has fully crossed the line, and this information will serve to assist the referee in making his final decision. Compared to similar technology in other sports, goal-line technology is a relatively recent addition to association football, its integration having been opposed by the sport's authorities.
Contemporary professional football and sports entities have embraced technology and data to boost sporting quality. However, this development has gone beyond the playing field as technology and data also start to play a larger role in improving business performances in the football sports industry. This chapter looks into how technology and data in the form of sports tracking systems, cf. The intensified commercialization in football from technology and data takes fandom to new heights and bring about new revenue generating opportunities.
Major growth drivers include significant improvement in audience engagement, growing demand for data-driven decisions and operations, and increasing sports events, online and offline. To know about the assumptions considered for the study, download the pdf brochure. In soccer, sports technology is used for gaining insights and actionable decisions. Predictive analytics uses big data to determine the probability or the likelihood of a certain outcome; intelligent descriptive analytics looks at big data and analyzes it using machine learning and artificial intelligence to come up with suggestions that improve the likelihood of the desired outcome. Both on and off the ground, sports technology is playing a bigger role than ever. A new approach to tactical analysis and the use of video technology are just some of the changes that are happening. The World Cup witnessed the debut of video assistant referees. This is perhaps the biggest change and one that has the potential to make the biggest impact.
The Application of Sports Technology and Sports Data for Commercial Purposes
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Integrated AI technology and robotics produce operator free videos, eliminating excess production costs. Schedule, produce and edit productions remotely and manage overlays, graphics, and branding on streams. Graphic scoreboard integration via scoreboard connection or optical recognition camera.
Sports Technology Market
NCBI Bookshelf. This chapter addresses the portion of the committee's statement of task concerning the effectiveness of protection devices and equipment and sports regulations for the prevention of concussions. The chapter begins with an overview of research on the effectiveness of protective equipment for the prevention and mitigation of sports-related concussions in youth.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: The Controversy Of The Crooked Referees: Lakers Vs Kings
Similarly, a Hawk-Eye call reversed a controversial point awarded to Nadal in Wimbledon Technology provides referees and officials with the additional information required in cases where there is scope for doubt. However, when it comes to market abuse surveillance, just as in the sports world, human experience is still key if the game is to be fair for all players. Applicable since 3 July , the new regime significantly extends the scope of the directive and establishes a common regulatory framework and preventive measures regarding insider dealing, unlawful disclosure of information, and market manipulation. Prevention, monitoring, and detection. Financial market evolution and technological developments are enabling new forms of market manipulation.
Sport & Entertainment
With the development of the modern science and technology, new and high technology and the electronic instrument and equipment has been widely used in the referee work of the large scale track and field matches, which is also a prominent feature of the modern large scale track and field matches. Taking the referee work of the track and field match of the Ninth National Games as an example, this article carries on the discussion on the function of the electronic equipment in the large scale track and field competition, to provide a reference for further deepening the recognition and understanding of the characteristics of the modern large scale track and field matches. Present situation and the development of the sports electronic equipment Since the development of modern Olympic sports competition, sports have become a part of peoples life around the world. For more than years, with the continuous improvement of the level of the competitive sports, the competition has become increasingly fierce, and in the competitive sports games, ranking the performance in one second per one hundred, or even one per one thousand seconds is very normal. So, quickly, accurately and fairly determining the timing and scoring of the achievement, and the instrument and the equipment assessing the scores have become one of the necessary sports facilities of the development of competitive sports. Early in the seventeen sixties, in the sports games there was the application of the mechanical stopwatch, and until the forties of this century, the development of light, machine, electric technology is gradually applied to the referee equipment of the sports matches. In the sixties of this century, the Swiss Omega company as the representative successfully promoted the timing and scoring devices to the sports industry with various applications of the electronic technology as the leading factor in the sports competitions, and has won the identification of the international sports organization. The increasing application of these electronic devices in sports competitions accelerates its development, and internationally the German Junghanns, the Japan Seiko and other companies also joined this field of research, with the development of their own products.
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As the biggest and most authoritative sporting goods show in the Asia Pacific region, China Sport Show is an important platform for industry resources and information exchange. China Sport Show, with an exhibition area of m2 attracted companies and brands participated as exhibitors. Nearly 50 concurrent events of 8 categories were held, including forums, workshops, business communication, competition, performance, interactive, etc. Fitness equipment, physical exercise equipment, protective gears, protective gears, accessories of fitness equipment, processing machinery, intellectual fitness equipment.
When completing form T, Statement of Business or Professional Activities , form T, Statement of Fishing Activities , or form T, Statement of Farming Activities , you have to enter an industry code that corresponds to your main business activity. If your business has more than one activity, use the code that most closely describes your main business activity. For example, you might operate a bookstore in which you sell postage stamps. If none of the generalized industry codes closely describes your main business activity, you can get a suitable code from the complete list of North American Industry Classification System codes NAICS maintained by Statistics Canada.
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Прости меня, - сказал он, стараясь говорить как можно мягче. - Расскажи, что с тобой случилось. Сьюзан отвернулась. - Не имеет значения.