Manufacturing industry products from porcelain, faience, semi-porcelain and majolica
And School of Industrial Art. In William Young, in connection with his son, Wm. Young, Jr. For four years they made hardware porcelain, some china vases, pitchers of various kinds and a few dishes. The marks used were, in , an eagle; from to , the English Arms.VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Zarin Porcelain Production Process
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Stoneware and earthenware
Authors have divided the field into sections, and have in many cases presented learned and exhaustive special treatises.
Notwithstanding the solid learning and critical acumen reflected in their pages, their form and voluminous character, however, detracted from their value as books for familiar and speedy reference, and left the acquirement of a general knowledge of the ceramic art a matter for wide research and prolonged study on the part of every reader and collector. The attempt has here been made to condense the leading points of the subject, to arrange them after a simple and easily intelligible method, and thus to present in one volume a comprehensive history.
No hesitation has been shown in drawing upon foreign authors. Many of the later developments of the art have also been touched upon, and the results of the more recent efforts of artists and manufacturers have been illustrated and described. In treating of America, the author has endeavored to convey some idea of its wealth in materials and of the present condition and tendencies of the industry, and to do justice to those who have laid the foundation of its claim to recognition in the world of art.
The author has incurred obligations in many quarters for information and assistance. Samuel P. Avery, the Hon. Yoshida Kiyonari, Japanese Minister at Washington, General Di Cesnola, and the many private collectors whose cabinets are represented in the following pages, gave valuable aid both in obtaining illustrations and in other respects. Charles Edward Haviland, Mr. Theodore Haviland, and M.
Bracquemond contributed many valuable hints upon technology and the manufacture and composition of different wares. The dealers of New York, Boston, Washington, Albany, and other cities took an active interest both in directing the author to collections and in furnishing specimens for illustration.
Among American manufacturers, Mr. Thomas C. Smith, of Greenpoint; Mr. James Carr, of New York; Mr. Hugh C. Robertson, of Chelsea, Massachusetts; and Mr. Hart Brewer, of Trenton, are especially deserving of thanks for helping the author to a true insight into the past history, present condition, and prospects of the art in the United States. In regard to the engravings, while it was, of course, found necessary in many cases to cull from the rich accumulations of ceramic treasures in Europe, in order to secure the proper illustration of the work, the preference has invariably been given to the collections of America.
Such a course recommended itself for obvious reasons. It was thought that it would, in the first place, gratify those desirous of knowing where, in this country, the best representatives of the art of certain countries are to be found; and that, in the second place, it would direct artists where to study the best styles of decoration.
The arts of all countries are found arrayed side by side in a profusion of which it would have been hard, a few years ago, to find a trace. The requirements of the student of decorative art have been fully considered, and due weight has been given to the fact that these requirements can be met better by the pencil than the pen. In procuring specimens, the author has acknowledgments to express both to private collectors and to the curators of public institutions.
Hutchins, of the Metropolitan Museum of Art in this city, both of whom admitted the author to a close inspection of the collections under their charge, and personally superintended the taking of sketches and photographs.
Similar favors were received from the trustees and Dr. Edward Bierstadt of New York, and Mr. Smillie of Washington, also granted facilities and volunteered courtesies which proved invaluable. Casual reference is made in the following pages to the marks of factories and artists, but after due deliberation it was decided not to make them the subject of special treatment or illustration.
Several good manuals are already in the hands of the public, and a book of marks should never take any other form. It is comparatively useless unless easily portable and handy. Then, again, marks are, and always have been, imitated to such an extent that they are not the most trustworthy guides to the parentage of specimens. Collectors who buy pieces for the sake of the mark they bear may be deceived; those who buy for the sake of beauty may occasionally be mistaken; but a cultivated taste can never be deluded into finding beauty in the unbeautiful.
If the present work should be found defective in certain points, it must be remembered that it could hardly be otherwise, considering its scope and limits. The author will be satisfied if, besides answering its primary purpose, it should increase the interest already awakened in the subject of which it treats, and lead students to appreciate and examine the collections at their command in this country.
Advantages of the Study. Confusion in Use of Terms. Tabulated View. Hard and Soft Pottery and Porcelain. Divisions of Chapter. The East the Cradle of Art. Possible Priority to Egyptian Pottery.
Art Derived from Egypt. Mystery Surrounding People. Art Different from that of Europe or America. Porcelain : When Invented.
Geographical Position. Persia, and its Influence. Routes by which Art Travelled. General Character of Greek Ceramics. Spain : Ancient Pottery. Italian Art. Prospect on approaching France. Early Pottery. Scandinavian Pottery allied to Teutonic. Petersburg: Its Porcelain. Continuity of History. Antiquity of American People. Connection with Peru. Who were they? Successors of the Mound-builders. The Future of America.
T HE history of ceramic art carries us back to ages of which it has furnished us with the only records. Beginning almost with the appearance of man upon the globe, it brings us down through the intricate paths of his migrations to the time in which we live. Historically, therefore, the study of the art is not only replete with interest, but promises much benefit to the student. The forms under which it appears are so varied, the circuitous route it has followed leads to so many lands and among so many peoples, and the customs it illustrates are so distinctive of widely separated nationalities, that its history is co-extensive with that of humanity.
In many cases it supplies us with information regarding nations whose works in pottery are their only monuments. Were we, therefore, to attempt to find its origin, we might go back as far as written history could guide us, and then find proofs of its existence in a prehistoric age. It is curious to observe that, as we compare the earliest productions of different countries, we discover a similarity between the crude ideas to which they owe their origin.
Daily habit demonstrated its utility, and gratitude found a cover for ignorance, in bestowing upon the heavenly powers the credit of inspiring man with a knowledge of the capabilities of the plastic clay. Reason supplies an easy solution of the problem, but one not likely to occur to the unreasoning man of the primitive world. Of this we can easily find abundant illustration. Let us take, as examples, China, Japan, Egypt, and Greece. We will find that each reverts to the misty boundary between legend and history, or to the earlier age when the gods had not deserted the world—the horizon of mortal vision or fancy, where heaven seems to touch earth.
This was during the reign of the enlightened Emperor Hoang-ti. Of him it is recorded that after many labors for the good of his subjects, the amelioration of their condition, and the extension of their knowledge, he was translated to the upper sphere on the back of a huge and whiskered dragon. The Japanese follow a precisely similar course.
Having no real knowledge, they call imagination to their aid, and solve an historical problem by the creation of a legend. The Egyptians, more reverently, gave the art directly to the gods. Having a pantheon, they merely singled out that one of its occupants to whom the honor should be ascribed. As Osiris is their Bacchus, and Thoth their Mercury, so to the director Num, the first creature, they ascribe the art of moulding clay.
Like the Hebrew Jehovah, he first made the heavens and earth, the firmament, the sun, and the moon, and, from the fact of his having made the rivers and mountains, would appear also to have evolved order out of the Egyptian chaos. Lastly, he made man. In how many instances did the Greeks lay the honors due to some forgotten mortal at the feet of a god or a semi-divine hero? To them Inachus, who about B. It was only when Gelanor, the last of the race of Inachus, was deposed by Danaus, that we find a Greek recognition of the early connection of that country with Egypt.
Quarrelling with his brother, Danaus set sail, and, arriving at Argos, rose to the throne by the means above indicated. These statements are only of value to our present purpose as showing the close connection between Greece and Egypt, and pointing to the conclusion that Egypt dropped the germs of that art which Greece cultivated to such perfection that it won the admiration of the world.
If we turn to the origin of pottery accepted by the Greeks themselves, we are confused by the liveliness of their teeming imagination. The exercise of fancy takes the place of an undeveloped historical sense. When Jupiter wished to punish the rash impiety of Prometheus by giving him a wife, Vulcan made Pandora, the first of mortal women, out of clay. Prometheus is one of the strangest figures in Greek mythology.
Thus the gods and heroes were potters, and the art was practised by them before mortal life began. To two Corinthians, one Athenian, and one Cretan, the invention of the plastic art has been attributed; but, passing these by, let us turn, for philological reasons, to the legend of Keramos. The story of the adventures of Theseus is pretty well known. By the help of Ariadne, he killed the Minotaur of Crete, and escaped from the Labyrinth, and, having subsequently abandoned his fair assistant on the island of Naxos, she is said by some to have hanged herself in despair.
ITALIAN CERAMICS FROM MIDDLE AGE TO THE PRESENT
As peculiar as some of the pieces themselves, the language of ceramics is vast and draws from a global dictionary. Peruse our A-Z to find out about some of the terms you might discover in our incredible galleries. Ceramic objects are often identified by their marks. Marks like the Chelsea anchor or the crossed-swords of Meissen are well known and were often pirated , while the significance of others is uncertain. One such mysterious mark is the capital A found on a rare group of 18th-century British porcelains.
The invention of a white pottery glaze suitable for painted decoration, by the addition of an oxide of tin to the slip of a lead glaze, was a major advance in the history of pottery. The invention seems to have been made in Iran or the Middle East before the ninth century. The term is now used for a wide variety of pottery from several parts of the world, including many types of European painted wares, often produced as cheaper versions of porcelain styles. English generally uses various other terms for well-known sub-types of faience. Italian tin-glazed earthenware, at least the early forms, is called maiolica in English, Dutch wares are called Delftware , and their English equivalents English delftware , leaving "faience" as the normal term in English for French, German, Spanish, Portuguese wares and those of other countries not mentioned it is also the usual French term, and fayence in German.
Delftware as Inspiration for Northern French Ceramic Centers
Types of ceramic dishes
Represent Royal Tichelaar Makkum describes the last 15 years of the long history of this Frisian earthenware factory and the Netherlands' oldest company. Under the impassioned leadership of director Jan Tichelaar, Royal Tichelaar Makkum is undergoing a number of decisive changes. By combining century-old craftsmanship with innovative projects by designers and architects, he has succeeded in broadening the company's activities to include contemporary products in the fields of architecture and design. The production of traditional earthenware, one of Holland's most famous national products, will continue alongside these new advancements.
Inside the ovoid body jug is painted a scene representing a woman who rides a crawling bend man. In the Renaissance the majolica of Faenza definitively leaves the gothic and oriental decorative motifs. The five characters of the sculpture are grouped around a fountain with a column to keep the ink and an hexagonal basin tool post.
It is a collective noun related to several movements in several countries, which were mainly a response to Art Nouveau and Jugendstil. The design is firm and simple; long, thin forms, bent surfaces, geometrical forms, red, black and silver, abstraction and clear colours. Art Nouveau Art Nouveau is an art movement, which emerged between and in several places in Europe, mainly as a response to the impressionism.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: porcelain production progress
Tin-glazed pottery is earthenware covered in lead glaze with added tin oxide  which is white, shiny and opaque see tin-glazing for the chemistry ; usually this provides a background for brightly painted decoration. It has been important in Islamic and European pottery , but very little used in East Asia. The pottery body is usually made of red or buff-colored earthenware and the white glaze imitated Chinese porcelain. The decoration on tin-glazed pottery is usually applied to the unfired glaze surface by brush with metallic oxides, commonly cobalt oxide , copper oxide , iron oxide , manganese dioxide and antimony oxide. The makers of Italian tin-glazed pottery from the late Renaissance blended oxides to produce detailed and realistic polychrome paintings. The earliest tin-glazed pottery appears to have been made in Iraq in the 9th century, the oldest fragments having been excavated during the First World War from the palace of Samarra about fifty miles north of Baghdad.
HISTORY OF THE PORCELAIN
The porcelain of the Chinese Porcelain has been known as a product of the Chinese since the golden age of West-Chinese cultures to B. But Porcelain was not invented in China, but it was the result of a long process of development. Porcelain items reached Europe by way of laborious routes from the 13th century onwards by traders, explorers and globetrotters like Marco Polo. Porcelain was imported in particular via the Dutch since the 17th century. But production of the precious material remained a secret of the Chinese — it had to be newly invented in Europe. Marco Polo is said to have used this name at first for Chinese porcelain products. Like many others, he also thought that the Chinese produced the porcelain from this shell. By using white earth Kaolin and by the improvement of the procedure the production of the first European hard porcelain succeeded in , whereupon in the porcelain manufactory Meissen was set up for the beginning of serial production.
Fine tin-glazed earthenware maiolica in traditional pattern, made in Faenza. The invention seems to have been made in Iran or the Middle East before the ninth century. A kiln capable of producing temperatures exceeding 1.
THE CERAMIC ART.
The faience industry spread to Scandinavia mainly because of migratory workmen from Germany. A number of factories in Denmark , Norway , and Sweden during the 18th century made faience and creamware in the English manner. A distinctive Scandinavian production was that of bowls, made in the shape of a mitre, for a kind of punch called bishop.
Dishes are one of the things we use most in our everyday life, but dishes can be used not only in the kitchen. Of course, most often different plates, cups, pots, kettles, bowls and so on we use for cooking or serving food. But besides this, in our homes there are vases, pots for plants, in the bathroom there are soap dishes and glasses for toothbrushes and much more.
Ceramics has been known since ancient times and is probably the first man-made artificial material. Take a walk in the excavations of any ancient site of ancient settlement. What do you see in abundance under your feet? As a result of the heat treatment of the ceramic, the material is almost eternal oh, if not for its fragility!
Чатрукьян знал, что ему делать. Знал он и то, что, когда пыль осядет, он либо станет героем АНБ, либо пополнит ряды тех, кто ищет работу. В огромной дешифровальной машине завелся вирус - в этом он был абсолютно уверен. Существовал только один разумный путь - выключить. Чатрукьян знал и то, что выключить ТРАНСТЕКСТ можно двумя способами.
Все прочитали: - …в этих бомбах использовались разные виды взрывчатого вещества… обладающие идентичными химическими характеристиками. Эти изотопы нельзя разделить путем обычного химического извлечения.
Кроме незначительной разницы в атомном весе, они абсолютно идентичны.