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Produce industry sewage treated water

Produce industry sewage treated water

Technologies for safe, environmentally compliant wastewater treatment systems and sewage treatment plant operations. Industrial wastewater presents some significant purification challenges before it can be reused or released into the environment. Industrial wastewater treatment is required to remove contaminants and ensure that industries are fully compliant with regional industrial wastewater treatment standards. Wastewater treatment also helps companies save money by enabling the reuse of water in their industrial processes and minimising waste processing costs. Veolia Water Technologies provides a range of water treatment and industrial wastewater treatment systems suitable for all major industries including food and beverage, automotive, mining, pharmaceutical, petrochemical and power. Veolia provides tailored solutions and processes, specifically designed to meet challenging wastewater treatment requirements.

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Industrial Wastewater Treatment

In recent years, microalgae have received more attention in applied biotechnological studies in various aspects of energy 1 , water 2 and high added-value bioproducts 3. Considering the economic aspects of integrating algae technology into a municipal wastewater treatment plant WWTP , use of Life Cycle Assessment LCA and Technoeconomic Analysis could help to find a viable market position for the technology 4 , 5 , 6 , 7.

At the moment large-scale wastewater-integrated algae facilities have not emerged in spite of the promising opportunities. Cultivation of microalgae in wastewater or related substrates is a prominent field inspiring the scientific community 8 , 9 , 10 , because they can be used as nutrient sources for microalgae due to high nitrogen and phosphorus content 11 , thereby reducing the load on the WWTP, as well as algae support microbial oxidative activities by producing oxygen during photosynthesis 12 , and also accumulate heavy metals 13 , The conventional mechanism of treating municipal wastewater is a sequenced process.

The primary treatment aims to mechanically remove solid materials, followed by the secondary treatment to reduce organic matter and nutrients. Tertiary treatment may be also applied to polish the effluent. These steps are referred as the water line, while the usual aerated activated sludge mechanism as secondary treatment results in sludge to be managed in the sludge line.

WWTPs are focusing on the water line as that delivers clean water which is the main performance and legal indicator; improvement of the sludge line by means of energy and cost efficiency, as well as its environmental performance is lagging behind.

While anaerobic digestion reduces the volume of the sludge, the recovery of macro- and micronutrients is not solved despite its priority in circular economy. The liquid fraction after dewatering the digested sludge called anaerobic digestion AD effluent is a promising substrate to grow microalgae Usual solution to manage this fraction is to return it to the start of the water line referred as return flow , as nutrient content is above legal threshold. As microalgae can remove this excess amount of nutrients from the AD effluent, its application leads to saving on operational cost and capacity while producing biomass as added value product.

Furthermore, anaerobic digestion derived biogas is often used on-site to generate power in gas engines with flue gas emission, of which CO 2 content is a potential carbon source for microalgae 16 , Valorization of waste streams can have a positive impact on the long-term sustainability of the industry. The transition to adopt new technologies, however, is a challenge, as they are outside the core business of wastewater treatment and require capital-intensive investments.

However, experiments have begun in many places. Usually tertiary stage benefits from microalgae cultures, but attempts have been made to involve microalgae into the secondary stage too There are many successful experimental results in controlled, sterile, laboratory conditions using synthetic media and photobioreactors PBRs 19 , 20 , but the quality of AD effluent presents some problematic aspects, such as suboptimal composition for microalgae, seasonal changes and suspended materials difficult to settle, as well as contains a microflora that may compete with microalgae in the presence of organic carbon.

The purpose of this work is to present and discuss the steps and challenges to carry out the integration process of microalgae cultivation into wastewater treatment from zero to the actual operation of the pilot design.

This step-wise and consequential process can guide the sector to design microalgae integration from the sole intention to the pilot technology. The process is composed of the next following phases:. The necessary competences and approaches to fulfil and evaluate a phase, are described in form of protocols.

These protocols, developed during the work, include all aspects of the integration in its complexity. Next to technological aspects, protocols also help to draw up economically sound scale-up scenarios and business models, as well as evaluate the legal framework and environmental impacts.

The development of the phases is based on a case study and its experiences that aimed to provide a compelling narrative and process for the wastewater sector to make this happen in other settings too. The project built on involvement of European partners mobilizing complementary skills which was necessary to define this multidisciplinary process.

Hence, the discussion is not only from a scientific point of view, but also presenting the practical and operational aspects which are important to include industry stakeholders and spread the cultivation of microalgae. In this sense, the authors aim to give a comprehensive review about how the process was established and tested in order to integrate microalgae production technology into wastewater treatment systems, and produce biomass for algae-based products.

The phases and the included protocols are detailed in the next chapters. The Budapest Sewage Works Ltd. It is the operator of two WWTPs both equipped with biogas production.

The main indicator of the North Budapest WWTP with a capacity of population equivalent up to m 3 input a day is to meet the legal threshold for the treated effluent water. The treatment process of the North Budapest WWTP is a usual aerated activated sludge technology where two distinct lines can be differentiated Fig. The water line operates with the expected results and provides clean water with parameters below the legal threshold for return to nature.

Besides the membrane-type presses and the belt filter press, industrial centrifuges largely complement the final dewatering process not shown on the illustration. Citation: The EuroBiotech Journal 2, 1; The sludge line produces the AD effluent from digested sludge dewatering that cannot be discharged to nature because its nutrient content is above the legal limit.

Table 1. Even if compared to raw wastewater, the AD effluent contains more nutrients and also suspended solids due to its origin from digested sludge dewatering. The higher nutrient content is also related to the fact that this biogas plant processes external organic wastes too 21 , as indicated in Table 2.

While this may be unfavourable in the view of the composition of the AD effluent, it provides the WWTP the possibility to approximate energy self-sufficiency by producing annually 11 MWh electricity and 13 MWh heat from biogas. Upgrading this AD effluent and reducing the load in the return flow are the main motivations for investigating microalgae integration.

Experiments in microalgae cultivation and integration into wastewater treatment have been ongoing at the North Budapest WWTP since Considering the difficulties of AD effluent outlined earlier, the company has been seeking easy to apply processes and protocols that guide it through the process.

Nutrient removal efficiency, biomass yield and reactor efficiency to reduce residence time are listed as priority factors. These factors, however, can be contrarily to each other, thus a compromised solution is needed.

While short residence times can reduce the reactor volumes needed, they may not result in high nutrient removal efficiency. For example ponds can provide adequate nutrient removal, but they are not optimized for algal growth and high productivity This first step aims to investigate the actual wastewater treatment plant and the stream intended for algae cultivation.

The aim of this step is to evaluate multiple factors including aspects of technology, biology and legislation that can determine next steps and integration options. One-time sampling and measurement may lead to biased results. Annual average composition of the incoming raw wastewater and the AD effluent from the centrifuges, as well as the discharge threshold defined by legislation for the North Budapest WWTP.

All concentrations are in mg L A protocol implying a statistical analysis was developed that can be used as a basis for assessing the historical parameters. The protocol highlights the effect of seasonality on concentration profiles and the levels of concentration and their variability in time, as well as confirms the suitability of these effluents for microalgae growth. A set of analytical tools are included in the protocol to analyse the database of historically measured data.

As microalgae growth and productivity are highly dependent on a satisfactory C: N:P ratio, the set of data is plotted versus the general formula for microalgae composition 23 as a function of time. The data are compared to thresholds of micronutrients to highlight any imbalance in the samples. Nevertheless, considering its origin imbalances are expected, but the reason for those should be addressed for example by influencing pH to prevent phosphate precipitation Different WWTPs use different units and parameters, and statistical analysis can reveal some inconsistencies in the datasets, hence verification of the data and crosschecking the analytical methods are also advised.

However, the composition of AD effluent is not measured and registered at every WWTP, as it is directed to the start of the water line as return flow, and not a natural discharge with legal requirements.

Thus, lack of historical data on the AD effluent composition can become an obstacle in the design process. The stream intended as substrate for microalgae must be characterized not only by COD and N and P contents but also by its biological oxygen demand BOD and inorganic carbon IC content to assess its biodegradability under aerobic conditions. Presence of biodegradable compounds can also imply possibilities for mixotrophic conditions.

Tests with samples can also indicate the need for additional treatment. For example, in the case study an extra step of settling was needed as after centrifugation, the effluent still contained suspended solid. A filtration step could be also required to remove further particles and coarse colloids Fig.

The need for treatment has implications on the actual design of integration, introduced in the next chapter. In order to select the most appropriate strains for a given stream, a robust, high-throughput, low cost, low labour and easy to apply strain selection protocol is needed to find the most suitable algae species.

For these reasons, a microplate based protocol was developed for short-listing of strains, while further investigations for temperature optimum determination are advised in flask scale around 0. Literature, culture collections and own isolations are a good basis to inquire a starting set of up to 50 strains to investigate and to prepare a short list.

Interestingly, those isolated strains were outperformed by the ones from the culture collection. The strain selection protocol has two important practical aspects; to screen strains against the temperature optimum and medium strength. Considering the features of the wastewater streams, it is possible that without adaptation the strains could not survive in undiluted feedstock, thus different dilutions were tested and also the adaptive capacity of strains investigated.

In the case study, the results of strain selection highlighted the importance of an adaptation period to the AD effluent. Outdoor production of microalgae is subject to seasonal temperature fluctuations which can affect the growth of algae. This temperature is too high for the optimal range described for most commercial algae species and at temperatures exceeding the optimum, microalgae growth rate sharply declines Cooling is often applied to keep the culture medium at a lower temperature, to optimize the efficiency and prevent crashes of algae cultures However, cooling represents a major energy and cost factor.

The use of a higher cultivation temperature, will not only save energy for cooling, but is a selective factor that can reduce the probability of local algae contamination making possible the maintenance of a monoculture. The developed protocol in the case study showed a good reproducibility. Complementing the AD effluent by micronutrients resulted in a balanced growth in semi-continuous cultivation mode. In order to provide more accurate information on the conditions for optimal biomass cultivation, a lab scale photobioreactor can be used to simulate an average daily light condition at the location of the wastewater treatment unit Budapest for the case study , operating under continuous mode.

This experiment provides information needed to setup the operation protocol for algae growth at the location. Though the European policy points towards circular economy and nutrient recycling, the current legal framework on wastewaters is outside the scope of the waste legislation.

As a result, usually national legislation regulates wastewater and its treatment separately from waste regulations.

Thus, circular economy aspects are usually not considered and implemented. From a legal point of view, there is only wastewater and clean water that meets the threshold, so from this aspect AD effluent is considered as wastewater.

As being defined as wastewater, stricter regulations apply with regards to transportation and transfer of ownership compared to regulations on waste. This regulatory framework considerably narrows the commercial viability of an otherwise microbiologically sound and widely researched method of producing microalgae and cleaning the AD effluent.

According to current laws wastewater flows in a one-way direction. Wastewater including AD effluent by legal means can only leave the point of origin by direct transport pipeline or collecting truck to the treatment plant. Also, whenever it has reached the treatment plant there is no legal way to transfer any part of that to any third party to set up algae production outside the WWTP.

This way the only two places where algae producing investments can take place are the point of origin or the wastewater treatment plant which is the same for AD effluent. This considerably limits the feasibility of any similar investment given certain limitations including available area at the WWTP for own microalgae production. This has to be considered in the planning process. The results and observations derived from the preliminary evaluation are used as input for the design phase.

For proper design, technologies and scales, the results of the preliminary evaluation are taken into account.

Sewage treatment facilities

Industrial wastewater treatment describes the processes used for treating wastewater that is produced by industries as an undesirable by-product. After treatment, the treated industrial wastewater or effluent may be reused or released to a sanitary sewer or to a surface water in the environment. Most industries produce some wastewater.

Non-conventional water NCW is water from a source not conventionally used for agricultural production, primarily water that is of lower quality. The two major sources are:.

Alfakhimprom JSC carries out the design, construction, launch and operation of drinking and industrial water treatment facilities, treatment facilities and other water utilities. In the process of designing facilities for the treatment of industrial effluents of enterprises, the company relies on innovative technical solutions and its own developments. There is a great demand for purification nowadays, therefore, it is necessary to identify the possibility and feasibility of industrial use of treated wastewater and sludge when choosing a wastewater treatment method of settlements and industrial enterprises. Wastewater treatment technologies depend on the type of pollution that is divided into several categories:.

Wastewater treatment challenges in food processing and agriculture

In recent years, microalgae have received more attention in applied biotechnological studies in various aspects of energy 1 , water 2 and high added-value bioproducts 3. Considering the economic aspects of integrating algae technology into a municipal wastewater treatment plant WWTP , use of Life Cycle Assessment LCA and Technoeconomic Analysis could help to find a viable market position for the technology 4 , 5 , 6 , 7. At the moment large-scale wastewater-integrated algae facilities have not emerged in spite of the promising opportunities. Cultivation of microalgae in wastewater or related substrates is a prominent field inspiring the scientific community 8 , 9 , 10 , because they can be used as nutrient sources for microalgae due to high nitrogen and phosphorus content 11 , thereby reducing the load on the WWTP, as well as algae support microbial oxidative activities by producing oxygen during photosynthesis 12 , and also accumulate heavy metals 13 , The conventional mechanism of treating municipal wastewater is a sequenced process. The primary treatment aims to mechanically remove solid materials, followed by the secondary treatment to reduce organic matter and nutrients. Tertiary treatment may be also applied to polish the effluent. These steps are referred as the water line, while the usual aerated activated sludge mechanism as secondary treatment results in sludge to be managed in the sludge line.

Wastewater Process

We can perform every single task that may be required by industrial businesses, local authorities and local inhabitants. From sourcing and producing process and drinking water all the way through to treating wastewater in sewage treatment plants or on site at our industrial customers. But why not take a closer look for yourself?! Only 2.

One more task of Vodokanal is to collect and treat wastewater.

Our industrial sewage treatment plants are supplied to various industries. In addition, we provide sewage treatment plants for the processing of ores and animal waste rendering plants. Thanks to this, your WWTP can produce electric or thermal energy.

Top 7 Industrial Wastewater Treatment Companies Worldwide

Wastewater characteristics and effluent quality parameters 1. At the same time, with population expanding at a high rate, the need for increased food production is apparent. The potential for irrigation to raise both agricultural productivity and the living standards of the rural poor has long been recognized.

SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Advanced Anaerobic Digestion - Convert Wastewater Sludge into Energy - SUEZ

Wastewater can be defined as water that is not clean because it has already been used. Wastewater treatment is the process of converting wastewater — water that is no longer needed or is no longer suitable for use — into bilge water that can be discharged back into the environment. It also includes stormwater and urban runoff, agricultural, horticultural and aquaculture effluent. Wastewater comes from domestic, industrial, commercial or agricultural activities. The composition of wastewater varies widely depending on the source.

Visits to Vodokanal’s production sites

A heavy backlog of gaseous, liquid, and solid pollution has resulted from a lack of development in pollution control. Because of this, a need for a collection of original research in water and wastewater treatment, industrial waste management, and soil and ground water pollution exists. Advanced Treatment Techniques for Industrial Wastewater is an innovative collection of research that covers the different aspects of environmental engineering in water and wastewater treatment processes as well as the different techniques and systems for pollution management. Highlighting a range of topics such as agriculture pollution, hazardous waste management, and sewage farming, this book is an important reference for environmental engineers, waste authorities, solid waste management companies, landfill operators, legislators, environmentalists, and academicians seeking research on waste management. Advanced Treatment Techniques for Industrial Wastewater. Hussain, Athar , Ahmed, Sirajuddin.

Effective industrial wastewater treatment can produce both clean and reusable water, as well as reducing overall waste production. Here are some key benefits.

Selected Water Resources Abstracts. Food of Larval Sea Lamprey Petromyzon. Toxicity of an Algal Complex on Freshwater.

Wastewater treatment and reuse in agriculture

Fresh water quality and supply, particularly for domestic and industrial purposes, are deteriorating with contamination threats on water resources. Multiple technologies in the conventional wastewater treatment WWT settings have been adopted to purify water to a desirable quality. However, the design and selection of a suitable cost-effective treatment scheme for a catchment area are essential and have many considerations including land availability, energy, effluent quality and operational simplicity.

Industrial WWTP

The range of food products presents different wastewater challenges. Examples include: fruits and vegetables for canning and preserving, fish, meat and poultry, dairy products, and fats and oils. Wastewater generated from food production and agricultural activities is a major source of environmental pollution. It is also among the most difficult and costly waste to manage because food processing wastewater can contain large quantities of nutrients, organic carbon, nitrogenous organics, inorganics, suspended and dissolved solids, and it has high biochemical and chemical oxygen demands.

The mechanisms and processes used for treating wastewater that is produced by industries as an undesirable by-product is the best definition for industrial wastewater treatment.

Он приближался к двери. - Черт его дери! - почти беззвучно выругалась Сьюзан, оценивая расстояние до своего места и понимая, что не успеет до него добежать. Хейл был уже слишком близко. Она метнулась к буфету в тот момент, когда дверь со звуковым сигналом открылась, и, остановившись у холодильника, рванула на себя дверцу.

За окном не было ничего, кроме беспросветного мрака. Шифровалка исчезла. ГЛАВА 57 В туалетных комнатах шифровалки не было окон, и Сьюзан Флетчер оказалась в полной темноте. Она замерла, стараясь успокоиться и чувствуя, как растущая паника сковывает ее тело.

Душераздирающий крик, раздавшийся из вентиляционной шахты, все еще звучал в ее ушах. Вопреки отчаянным попыткам подавить охвативший ее страх Сьюзан явственно ощущала, что это чувство завладевает ею безраздельно.

Хейл лично знаком с Танкадо. И снова постаралась держаться с подчеркнутым безразличием. - Он поздравил меня с обнаружением черного хода в Попрыгунчике, - продолжал Хейл.

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