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Low-Carbon Heat Solutions for Heavy Industry: Sources, Options, and Costs Today

Demand for primary chemicals — which is an indication of activity in the sector overall — has grown strongly in recent years. Recycling of thermoplastics counterbalances a small proportion of global demand for virgin plastics, thereby reducing demand for primary chemicals. Although recycling meets only a small share of plastic demand globally, in Europe the amount of plastic collected for recycling exceeded that going into landfills for the first time in Plastics Europe, Demand for plastics has been growing quickly and will continue to do so.

Key plastic end-use sectors are packaging, construction and automotive applications. In many parts of the developing world, demand for plastics has just recently begun to gain momentum. North America led by the United States and the Middle East are projected to each account for about one-fifth of the growth in HVC production by , with Asia Pacific making up most of the rest.

Demand for other synthetic fertilisers that are also critical to modern agricultural systems has been increasing steadily, including those that deliver potassium and phosphates, but they are less important from an energy standpoint. Ammonia production capacity is projected to expand fairly evenly across the globe in upcoming years, with Asia Pacific leading output growth to , accounting for about one-third.

Ammonia use is driven largely by demand for urea, its largest-volume derivative. Methanol is also used for fuel additive applications a key driver of the more-than-average growth and as an intermediate to produce HVCs, mainly when oil is not available as a feedstock. In IEA projections to , methanol production capacity additions are highly concentrated in North America and the Asia Pacific region owing to the availability of low-cost gas United States and coal China for feedstock.

In the short to medium term, this is achieved primarily by decreasing coal use and raising energy efficiency. The coal-based chemical industry, particularly prevalent in China, poses a significant environmental challenge, as emissions intensities are significantly higher than from natural gas-based production. Methanol can be produced far more affordably from coal, which has facilitated the large-scale and rapidly growing route of producing plastics from coal in China.

Increased energy efficiency — through both incremental improvements to existing methods and step changes resulting from switching to fundamentally more efficient methods e. Various policy efforts have been undertaken in recent years to reduce emissions from the production process or to address the use and disposal of chemical products. With respect to the production phase, some encouraging progress has been made in the energy efficiency policy arena. In India, for example, the Perform Achieve Trade PAT project requires designated industry sectors and companies to achieve energy-saving targets and provides a trading mechanism that allows companies to trade certificated excess compliance with companies that have not met the targets BEE, Regarding chemical product use and disposal, policies targeting increased plastic recycling and other material efficiency strategies such as product reuse and life extensions have advanced significantly in certain regions, particularly Europe.

As of , Korea, Switzerland, Austria, Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden, Denmark, Luxembourg, Belgium, Norway and Finland all had landfill restrictions in place, which appears to be associated with higher rates of plastic waste-to-energy production and recycling Plastics Europe, Plastic recycling overtook landfilling for the first time in Europe in Korea and Japan had achieved this feat several years earlier, with landfill rates in each country being in single digits.

The Ecodesign Directive, developed by the European Commission, provides guidance on how to reduce the environmental footprint of consumer products in their various life-cycle phases European Union, There have also been calls to ban consumption of certain plastics, particularly for single-use purposes and for which substitutes exist European Union, Nonetheless, accelerated policy progress covering all regions will be needed to get the sector on track with the SDS.

Producing, using and disposing of chemicals and chemical products continue to pose a variety of sustainability challenges. A clear institutional framework defining stakeholder responsibilities throughout the value chain from chemical production to the use and disposal of chemical products is a prerequisite to ensure cost-efficient, concerted action.

Data on energy intensity with more regional granularity is especially needed to enable better performance assessments and comparisons. Developing and deploying innovative technologies and process routes is crucial for chemical and petrochemical sector decarbonisation.

Key new and emerging low-carbon processes involve replacing fossil fuel feedstocks with electrolytic hydrogen, bio-based feedstocks, electricity as a feedstock and captured CO 2. Further development of carbon capture, utilisation, transportation and storage technologies will also be important for decarbonisation. Hydrogen can be produced either through steam reforming with natural gas as the feedstock or through electrolysis with electricity as the feedstock.

Hydrogen produced by electrolysis is often referred to as electrolytic hydrogen. In the short to medium term, fossil-based and otherwise avoidable emissions can also be used. A wide variety of feedstocks can be used to produce the syngas: natural gas and coal are currently the most common, but biomass and waste can also be used. This process route could replace fossil fuel feedstocks with low-carbon methanol to produce aromatics using conventional naphtha steam crackers, if low-carbon methanol were available.

The method currently being explored uses technology similar to what has already been commercialised for methanol-to-olefin production, which employs a silver-impregnated zeolite catalyst. Even among energy professionals, the chemical and petrochemical sector is inadequately understood, which often leads to underestimating its impact in energy terms. This commentary details how fuels used as feedstocks pass through the chemical and petrochemical sector.

Thank you for subscribing. You can unsubscribe at any time by clicking the link at the bottom of any IEA newsletter. IEA Skip navigation. Close Search Submit. Tracking report — May Authors and contributors. Authors and contributors Close dialog. Open Navigation Contents Cite Share. Cite report Close dialog. Share this report Close dialog. Overview Direct CO2 emissions from the chemical and petrochemical subsector reached 1. In the SDS, despite continued strong growth in demand, the sector's emissions increase at a much more modest rate before peaking around and returning to today's level by To get on track, efforts from government and industry are needed to address CO2 emissions from chemical production — such as the use of electrolytic hydrogen as a feedstock or the application of CCUS — as well as from the use and disposal of chemical products.

Collection rates must increase globally over the next decade to get on track with the SDS. Establish and extend plant-level benchmarking schemes. Require the chemical industry to meet stringent air quality standards. Adjust fuel and feedstock prices to reflect actual market value. Reduce reliance on single-use plastics other than for essential, non-substitutable functions.

Improve waste management practices around the world. Raise consumer awareness about the multiple benefits of recycling consumer goods. Design products with disposal in mind. Extend producer responsibility.

The Future of Petrochemicals circle-arrow. From energy to chemicals circle-arrow. Holder, M. Milne, P. WoodMackenzie , Methanol Production and Supply database purchase data. Xu, C. Next Iron and steel. Subscription successful Close dialog.

The chemical industry

NCBI Bookshelf. Chemistry and chemical engineering are intimately concerned with the generation and use of energy. We need energy for manufacturing, for transportation, for heating and cooling our homes, for lighting, and for cooking. Affordable supplies will become scarcer, and burning fossil fuels produces carbon dioxide that contributes to the greenhouse effect by which solar energy is trapped within the atmosphere and warms the planet.

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Nearly every industry—agriculture, energy, oil and gas, manufacturing, consumer and retail—relies on chemicals to produce. Opportunities Amid Looming Clouds: 5 Oct. Get new insight and analysis. Company Strategies and Performance CSP Access an in-depth comparative view of your position in the chemical and refining industries In an IHS Chemical Market Advisory Services provides near-term price, supply-demand, trade and cost forecasts for five key chemical groups in North

Lithium: Sources, Production, Uses, and Recovery Outlook

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Chemical Manufacturing: NAICS 325

The United States is a highly industrialized country. Click to enlarge. Most industries purchase electricity from electric utilities or independent power producers. Some industrial facilities also generate electricity for use at their plants using fuels that they purchase or using residues from their industrial processes.

Black, gooey, greasy oil is the starting material for more than just transportation fuel.

Metrics details. This paper gives a brief review of energy and CO 2 emissions related topics resulting from the chemical and related industries. The main issues, challenges and opportunities are highlighted together with perspectives of process alternatives for more efficient energy consumption and CO 2 emission management. Analysis of the data indicate that not all available energy resources are being utilized efficiently, while the energy resources causing the largest emissions of CO 2 are being used in the largest amounts.

Associated Content

Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. The chemical industry is more diverse than virtually any other industry in the United States. Harnessing basic ingredients, the industry 1 produces a plethora of products not usually seen or used by consumers but that are essential components of, or are required to manufacture, practically every consumer and industrial product Box

SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Independent and Dependent (Controlled) Sources

Program implementation entails a myriad of choices that can lead to different degrees of public health protections. Well-documented exposures to multiple industrial chemicals occur from air, soil, water, food, and products in our workplaces, schools, and homes. Many hazardous chemicals are associated with or known to cause health risks; for other industrial chemicals, no data exist to confirm their safety because of flaws in TSCA. Under the Lautenberg amendments, the United States Environmental Protection Agency EPA must evaluate chemicals against risk-based safety standards under enforceable deadlines, with an explicit mandate to identify and assess risks to susceptible and highly exposed populations. Effective public health protection requires EPA to implement the Lautenberg TSCA requirements by incorporating intrinsic and extrinsic factors that affect susceptibility, adequately assessing exposure among vulnerable groups, and accurately identifying highly exposed groups. We recommend key scientific and risk assessment principles to inform health-protective chemical policy such as consideration of aggregate exposures from all pathways and, when data are lacking, the use of health-protective defaults.

Tracking Industry

Demand for primary chemicals — which is an indication of activity in the sector overall — has grown strongly in recent years. Recycling of thermoplastics counterbalances a small proportion of global demand for virgin plastics, thereby reducing demand for primary chemicals. Although recycling meets only a small share of plastic demand globally, in Europe the amount of plastic collected for recycling exceeded that going into landfills for the first time in Plastics Europe, Demand for plastics has been growing quickly and will continue to do so. Key plastic end-use sectors are packaging, construction and automotive applications. In many parts of the developing world, demand for plastics has just recently begun to gain momentum. North America led by the United States and the Middle East are projected to each account for about one-fifth of the growth in HVC production by , with Asia Pacific making up most of the rest. Demand for other synthetic fertilisers that are also critical to modern agricultural systems has been increasing steadily, including those that deliver potassium and phosphates, but they are less important from an energy standpoint.

Handbook for Obtaining Chemical Use and Relat; Economic information. on-line, and industry sources, and evaluates many current Sources which contain information such Standards, Industria wastes, Combustion products, Monitoring.

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Chemical industry

The chemical industry creates an immense variety of products which impinge on virtually every aspect of our lives. Figure 1 The chemical industry is one of the largest manufacturing industries in all developed and emerging countries. This is a view of the largest site in the world devoted to the industry, at Ludwigshaven in Germany.

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The demand for lithium has increased significantly during the last decade as it has become key for the development of industrial products, especially batteries for electronic devices and electric vehicles. This article reviews sources, extraction and production, uses, and recovery and recycling, all of which are important aspects when evaluating lithium as a key resource. First, it describes the estimated reserves and lithium production from brine and pegmatites, including the material and energy requirements. Then, it continues with a description about the current uses of lithium focusing on its application in batteries and concludes with a description of the opportunities for recovery and recycling and the future demand forecast.

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Regulatory authorities from developing countries have expressed a need for guidance in locating environmental, health and safety EHS information on industrial chemicals. In response, possible sources were identified via a search of the Internet using relevant terms and by soliciting suggestions from more than knowledgeable stakeholders. This initially identified greater than databases, 41 of which were chosen for further profiling and analysis based on their size and comprehensiveness. They were divided for analysis into three distinct groups: 1 data portals that provide information seekers with an efficient simultaneous search of multiple, third-party owned and maintained databases; 2 primary EHS information sources; and 3 databases that provide only EHS-type regulatory decisions but not raw data.

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The chemical industry comprises the companies that produce industrial chemicals. Central to the modern world economy , it converts raw materials oil , natural gas , air , water , metals , and minerals into more than 70, different products. The plastics industry contains some overlap, as most chemical companies produce plastic as well as other chemicals. Various professionals are deeply involved in the chemical industry including chemical engineers, scientists, lab chemists, technicians, etc.

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