Production building products of rabbit breeding, fur farming, hunting
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All rights reserved. It was frozen-toe, mid-February, north-country cold, under a cloudless sky, sun glinting off fresh snow. We were tromping out onto a wetland frozen nine inches deep.
It felt like how the fur trade began, someplace long ago, far away. Bill Mackowski, in his 60th year of trapping, mostly around northern Maine, pointed out some alder branches sticking through the ice. Beavers start collecting poplar after the first cold snap, he explained, then pile on inedible alder to weigh down the poplar below the ice, where they eat it throughout the winter.
He hacked through the ice with a metal pole, then passed it to me to try. It was a trap, snapped tight around the neck of an enormous beaver. Those air bubbles, a moment locked in ice, were its final breath. Many in the fur trade now readily acknowledge that activists who protested so loudly had a point: Farmers were not providing a decent standard of care for their animals.
But they add that the trade has changed, though activists dispute this. In any case, many people now seem to regard wearing fur as a matter of individual choice. In some cities you are more likely to be glowered at for texting while walking.
Fur farms dominate the trade, and production has more than doubled since the s, to about a hundred million skins last year, mostly mink and some fox. Trappers typically add millions of wild beaver, coyote, raccoon, muskrat, and other skins. But you hardly need the numbers. Just look around. Once the resolutely conventional winter-fashion choice of Park Avenue matrons and country club partygoers, fur has gone hip-hop and Generation Z.
It turns up now in all seasons and on throw pillows, purses, high heels, key chains, sweatshirts, scarves, furniture, and lampshades. There are camouflage-pattern fur coats, tie-dyed fur coats, and fur coats in an optical illusion M. Escher box pattern. So how has fur made such a comeback from the intense social ostracism of the s? Or for that matter, from the notoriety of the s, when the cartoon character Cruella de Vil hankered after the fur of Dalmatian puppies, and the real-life trade was threatening the survival of leopards, ocelots, and other species in the wild?
New restrictions in the s ended the use of endangered species in fashion. But the current revival is a story of the fur trade responding to its critics and often outmaneuvering them, combined with increased demand from the newly wealthy in China, South Korea, and Russia. I suppose I should acknowledge here that I come to this story from a tangled perspective.
My great-grandfather was a fur trapper, and I have a lingering sense that the intimate knowledge from hunting, fishing, and working with living things has a value largely lost in our urbanized lives. At the same time, my wife and I once inherited an ocelot jacket, and its 15 pelts haunted us until we finally donated it as an educational tool to a national wildlife refuge. So tangled, yes. I set out to see for myself. I headed north in a snowstorm to Nova Scotia, a center of the trade.
Mullen had invited me to see how his mink live and also how they die. Mullen grew up in the old style of mink ranching, with long, narrow, open-sided wooden sheds and a row of tight little cages on each side. When he went into business for himself, he opted for the larger cages now required in Europe, housed six rows across under translucent plastic roofs in barns the length of a football field. A worker drives a feed wagon down the rows multiple times a day, depositing a scientifically formulated meal that looks like raw hamburger atop each cage, portioned out by computer.
A frost-free line provides hour-a-day drinking water, and a trough underneath the cages automatically sweeps away wastes to be processed into fertilizer or, via a biodigester, into electricity.
Farming of mink, which accounts for 85 percent of the global fur trade, has grown dramatically. In recent years China has become a major producer of pelts. These changes have come largely in response to pressure from animal welfare advocates.
But they have often worked to the benefit of the farmers too. Toys in the cage—as simple as a length of plastic pipe—reduce stress and seem to translate into better quality pelts. The peculiar result is that people in the trade now often boast of the reforms their old adversaries forced on them. And so, for that, thank you. Why not? They were, of course, also doomed. I had arrived to see the killing. Farmworkers, wearing welding gloves to avoid being bitten, went from cage to cage, lifting each animal by the base of the tail.
Some animals screeched in protest, but most seemed accustomed to being handled, up to the moment they dropped, like packages into a mailbox, through the swinging door of the carbon monoxide killing box. They were unconscious within a minute and dead a few minutes later.
This is the most humane form of killing of livestock there is. In the auction room, buyers consulted their catalogs, bantered, and maneuvered for the lots they wanted. The leading fur auction houses began bringing in designers and design students at the height of the antifur movement.
The aim has always been to move beyond furrier shops and fur departments, and make fur just another fine fabric, available wherever clothes are sold.
Crocodilian skin exports declined in the three years after due to a global recession and the impact of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita on American alligators. Since the trade has rebounded, reaching almost 1. These zealously cultivated relationships have paid off, as designers have learned to use fur in ways conventional furriers never imagined, aided by innovations in dyeing that can produce fur in whatever color happens to be hot this season, from airy blue to green flash.
New sewing techniques have also helped, yielding more garment from less fur. So how should we feel about the resurgence of fur? Should the upcoming generation of women be inspired? Or should they be outraged, as animal rights activists insist? Should we applaud the advances the fur industry has made in animal welfare?
Like pig or chicken farming, fur farming is about keeping animals in captivity their entire lives and then killing them. It entails practices many people would consider unthinkable. Some fox farmers, for example, kill their animals by anal electrocution.
Industrializing our relationships with animals has also created problems. And in the auction house sorting process, pelts from as many as farms, good and bad alike, can end up together in the same lot. The European fur industry says it is working on a fix, but its new WelFur program must first inspect and grade thousands of farms.
He checked the nest box attached to each cage for size and the amount of straw for winter insulation. He examined the animals for body condition, injuries, and repeated back-and-forth motions that indicate stress.
He inserted a tongue depressor in each cage to see if the animal responded with fear, aggression, or curiosity. A WelFur visit requires about six hours to inspect a cage sample for 22 features.
Either way, will people who buy fur actually care? Not just for fur, but for everything we buy. They will ask at the shop, Is the animal welfare OK? But he believes they will. I came away with a contrarian idea. The ambition in the animal rights movement has always been to ban fur farming.
It just moves production to areas where no rules apply. At the auction I asked a broker who has a mink farm in China if that country has made much progress on animal welfare. Banning fur farming also does nothing about other livestock farming we take for granted. Yet most of us go on eating meat, drinking milk, wearing leather shoes, and otherwise exploiting animals, as humans always have, on a scale that makes the fur industry a sideshow.
People in the fur trade like to dwell on the implied hypocrisy. Read Caption. At a farm in Poland, a mink crouches in a wire cage where it will spend its entire life, about six to eight months. Why Fur Is Back in Fashion Animal skins are being embraced by designers amid a push to make the lives and deaths of captive creatures more humane. By Richard Conniff.
Photographs by Paolo Marchetti. This story appears in the September issue of National Geographic magazine. A worker at a farm in Colombia prepares a brown caiman—killed earlier by a single cut to the back of its neck—to be skinned. He will slice the animal from head to tail, and then another worker will peel off the hide. Caiman leather is not considered as luxurious as American alligator and is thus less expensive. On this ostrich farm in Thailand, workers kill, pluck, and skin the birds by hand.
Fashion designers prize ostrich leather as supple, durable, and distinctive, with a texture and pattern created by raised quill follicles. Native to Africa, ostriches are now raised around the world for their skin, feathers, and meat. Photograph by Paolo Marchetti, Alexia Foundation. Global production of mink in millions. Global exports of crocodilian skins in millions. Crocodiles , Alligators ,
The fashion industry is embracing a new approach to style, with ethical fashion taking over catwalks, designer labels and moving into the mass market as shoppers call for clothing that is cool and kind. At the forefront of this shift is the global move away from fur. Similar moves are also being reflected beyond individual brand policies. In , fur farming in the Czech Republic became illegal, the Ukrainian parliament introduced a law proposal to end fur farming and Los Angeles City Council backed a new law to ban the sale of fur fashion in
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The majority of information found in that handbook was an adaptation and revision of Commercial Rabbit You need to start a profitable Rabbit Farming Business to boost your income. Rabbit farming in Nigeria is faced with myriad of problems, which have resulted to a gross shortage of meat to meet up the population challenge in our country Nworgu, Getting to know all the advantages of rabbits and its industry in the Philippines. Small rabbit farming. Many producers are selling breeding stock as well as rabbits for slaughter.
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Back to top. In cases where these groupings correspond with major groups, the major group heading is also in italics. In this division, establishments which are primarily engaged in farming activities are classified, such as the growing of field crops, the raising of livestock and the production of milk, wool and eggs. Establishments rendering agricultural services such as harvesting, baling, threshing and spraying are also classified under this major division.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Angora Rabbit Breeding Farm -- Processing of Wool, Shearing, Carding, Spinning & Weaving
All rights reserved. It was frozen-toe, mid-February, north-country cold, under a cloudless sky, sun glinting off fresh snow. We were tromping out onto a wetland frozen nine inches deep. It felt like how the fur trade began, someplace long ago, far away. Bill Mackowski, in his 60th year of trapping, mostly around northern Maine, pointed out some alder branches sticking through the ice. Beavers start collecting poplar after the first cold snap, he explained, then pile on inedible alder to weigh down the poplar below the ice, where they eat it throughout the winter.
Native to Europe, rabbits were brought to Australia by the First Fleet as food animals, with the first feral rabbit populations recorded by the late s. Later releases of rabbits for sport hunting dramatically increased the size of the feral rabbit population. Rabbits eat pasture and crops, compete with native animals, cause soil erosion, and prevent regeneration of native vegetation. Introducing and selling rabbits in Queensland is illegal and penalties apply. Limited numbers of permits for domestic rabbits are available from Biosecurity Queensland for research purposes, public display, magic acts, and circuses. Before a permit is granted, guidelines must be met. You can support a national rabbit mapping project by reporting rabbit populations. Myxomatosis is no longer produced as a laboratory strain.
Aware, however, that scientific evidence available on the welfare requirements of fur animals is not sufficient for the elaboration of detailed provisions for the implementation of all principles set out in Chapter I of the Convention; Resolved therefore a. Article 1 1. This Recommendation shall apply to all animals kept primarily for their furs, in intensive as well as extensive farming systems. Nothing in this Recommendation shall affect the implementation of other instruments for the protection of animals or for the conservation of threatened wild species.
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Backyard small species. Though the word "backyard" is frequently used, it is a generic term and conditions are very variable in practice. In the village, there may be a fence or a wall around the dwelling or group of dwellings.
Fur farming is the practice of breeding or raising certain types of animals for their fur. Fur used from animals caught in the wild is not considered farmed fur, and is instead known as "wild fur". Other major producers include China, the Netherlands , Russia , and the U. The United States is a major exporter of fur skins. Fur farming is banned in Austria ,   Croatia ,   the United Kingdom,   , the Czech Republic effective in  and Norway effective from February 1,
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