Production factory video recording and playback equipment
As with any source of evidence, their production and original function need to be understood before we can understand what they transmit: how were these sources made and why? Above all, we need to know what a recording is of. A necessary step towards a musicology of recorded performance, then, is to find out. And that means learning rather a lot about the history of recording, its economic, social and technological history, all of which have a significant bearing on what comes off a record when we play it. The drum was rotated, and at the same time moved along a metal rod, by means of a screw attached to a handle which the operator turned. As the cylinder moved along the rod, it passed across a metal stylus, attached to one side of a diaphragm.VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Full Conference Recording Setup - Live Streaming and Live Editing Gear // Show and Tell Ep.16
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- Glossary Of Technical Terms
- Sound Recording Basics For Video Production
- Production Sound Mixer & Location Sound Recordist
- The Changing Sound of Music: Approaches to Studying Recorded Musical Performances
- A Brief History of Recording to ca. 1950
- Professional Audio
- Sound recording and reproduction
- We Partner with Top Video Production Manufacturers
- End-to-end solutions for content creation. Experts at work.
- Playback and Recording
Glossary Of Technical Terms
As with any source of evidence, their production and original function need to be understood before we can understand what they transmit: how were these sources made and why? Above all, we need to know what a recording is of. A necessary step towards a musicology of recorded performance, then, is to find out.
And that means learning rather a lot about the history of recording, its economic, social and technological history, all of which have a significant bearing on what comes off a record when we play it. The drum was rotated, and at the same time moved along a metal rod, by means of a screw attached to a handle which the operator turned. As the cylinder moved along the rod, it passed across a metal stylus, attached to one side of a diaphragm.
On the outer side of the diaphragm was a small mouthpiece into which the operator spoke. The sound waves focussed onto the diaphragm caused it to vibrate, which in turn caused the stylus to press into the tinfoil. As the drum rotated and moved across the stylus a groove was embossed in the tinfoil consisting of undulations related to the pressure patterns of the sound waves.
Playback involved placing the stylus at the beginning of the groove made during recording, and winding the cylinder along the rod once again. The undulations in the tinfoil caused the stylus to move in and out, and so the diaphragm to vibrate, which in turn moved the air in the mouthpiece, recreating the sound. From the electrical transmission of sound to the recording of it is an imaginable step; from speaking to recording is not. Only then were phonographs set up to record music on any scale, and then only as slot-machines for use in restaurants and bars.
Nevertheless, it was the success of the slot-machines, more than anything, that suggested that commercial music recording was viable.
Only in the very last years of the nineteenth century did classical music begin to feature in record company catalogues. Consequently, with only a very few exceptions, surviving recordings of classical music date from no earlier than The stylus moved across the recording medium, now a disc rather than a cylinder, and recorded on it by causing the vibrating diaphragm to cut a groove which moved in the lateral plane rather than the vertical.
A track was made in a thin coating of grease that covered a metal zinc disc. When the recording was finished, the disc was place in an acid bath. The acid etched a groove in the metal where the recording stylus has exposed it. However, early on Berliner realised that the individual recordings necessary with the wax cylinder process were a bar to mass exploitation.
He found that copies were easily made by firstly electroplating the original disc to provide a negative version with ridges instead of grooves. This metal negative became a stamper for producing identical copies in a steam operated press.
Berliner soon improved the reproduction process by abandoning etching and from using a wax master capable of spawning multiple stampers from which many more discs could be produced for sale. Clara Butt and Mr. Clara Butt sang Mr.
Ronald remained at the piano and, while the gramophone gave its reproduction of Mme. Plunket Greene, and the gramophone repeated it; and the singers joined in two duets, Mme. The instrument has improved so much of late that we have almost forgotten the days when it began every piece with an imitation of cats fighting. But with Mme. The volume of sound it could hardly hope to equal; but something remains yet to be done in the direction of quality.
Otherwise the words were extraordinarily clear. Butt and Mr. Rumford which formed the rest of the programme showed a very unsatisfactory reproduction of the orchestral accompaniments, which suggested a wheezy harmonium.
But it remains wonderful that any mechanism should do what the gramophone does. But for them, far more striking than the surface noise and the poor frequency response not even mentioned here was the fact that the voice was recognisable at all. Fred Gaisberg reports taking on a year-long trip to India and the Far East in , and bringing close on recordings back.
The whole turntable assembly moved sideways beneath the cutting head so that a groove was cut in the wax from the outer edge of the wax disc towards the centre.
Because it was attached directly to the horn, the cutting assembly was fixed. The stylus was moved by a usually glass diaphragm, and, depending on how efficient the connections were, pressure was transmitted more or less accurately. Horns tended to have resonances of their own, which were damped as far as possible by wrapping tape around them.
Multiple horns could be used to capture sound from a larger group of performers or from different parts of a piano, for example, and these were connected up via Y-shaped metal connectors joined to the horn with rubber tubing. The horns were suspended from or occasionally supported on stands to minimise strain on the cutting mechanism. Partly this was to cut out the noise, though given the insensitivity of the horn and all the noise generated along the way, it is unlikely to have been audible on disc; partly it was to protect company secrets.
What we can see is the horn, suspended by a wire and wrapped with tape; and we can see the very unorthodox arrangement of the musicians in front of it. Stanley Chapple, in a issue of Gramophone , provides a floor plan of such a session. Squashed around them are the woodwind players, who would have been reinforcing the string parts.
Behind them, but higher, were most of the brass, the French horns facing backwards in order to direct the sound from their bells into the recording horn, the players following the conductor in a mirror.
Bassoons reinforce the cellos, and a tuba and contrabassoon replace double basses, which would not have recorded adequately. The piano is an upright because its sound was more effectively focussed into one horn.
Pianists were instructed to play fortissimo throughout. Inexperienced soloists were guided back and forth by an assistant sometimes on trolleys. Because the wax has to be soft enough to cut cleanly recording rooms had to be uncomfortably warm.
It seems safe to assume that some of the appalling intonation one often hears on early recordings of strings and woodwind was caused by the heat. Sometimes side-ends were composed by an arranger, for example adding a perfect cadence to what would otherwise have been an open-ended musical phrase; mostly the musicians closed a side with a modest ritardando. If the musical results and sound quality were considered satisfactory, further negatives were made and nickel-plated for use as stampers.
An alternative method was to use the negative to make a positive from which harder negative stampers could be made, and there were other approaches, but the principle was the same. In some cases mainly reissues of very early discs this metal master had the shape of its groove adjusted in the interests of better long-term results from the shellac copies, and this process must to some extent have altered the sound. Once the metal negative was made the original wax master was returned to the lathe to be planed smooth and reused.
The shavings, along with tablets now too thin to reuse, went back to the vats for recycling. Over time the stampers became worn, with consequent deterioration in the sound of the shellac discs.
Eventually quality became sufficiently compromised for the metal stamper to be abandoned. Both what went in and what came out were far from representative of ideal music-making at the time.
Moreover, there were very significant distortions in the recording and playback of the sound, as we shall see in a moment. Clearly, if we are to use these recordings for study it is essential that we understand what these compromises and distortions are, how they arise, how they affect what we hear, and how we might be able to compensate for them.
Readers old enough to remember LPs or 78s, or anyone familiar with DJ techniques, will know that if the speed of a disc changes the pitch changes with it: a rise in speed brings a rise in pitch. Consequently if a record is played at anything other than the speed at which the master was recorded the pitch of the music will be wrong. Ways of establishing exactly what pitch the musicians were using, and of ensuring that the final discs played at the correct speed were, in theory, available but would have been impractical in most recording situations.
In a very warm studio it was inevitable that pitch would rise during a session. The machinery driving the cutting turntable would have been hard to regulate, was subject to variations during manufacture, and could change speed in different atmospheric conditions and over time. Even the cooling and hardening in the wax during recording, slowing the progress of the cutting head, could make a difference.
Consequently there can be not only problems in establishing the correct speed at which to play a disc, but there can also be changes of pitch during playback.
Gramophones were equipped with devices for varying the playback speed. Few were precise, or even precisely marked. Although most discs play somewhere around rpm, speeds can on occasion be as low as 60 or as high as 90rpm.
To put it into perspective, at 78rpm a difference of c. Figure 1. And about that, modern CD transfers have widely differing views. There is no scientific solution to this problem. All we can do is discuss the results among experienced listeners and hope to agree, more or less. Similar problems occur in more modern recordings because of differences among tape machines, cutting lathes and playback equipment. Nothing but musical instinct can guide us here.
Cylinders were capable of surprisingly good sound quality, which may be partly why Edison stuck with the technology for so many years after every other manufacturer had gone over to discs, until in fact. The reason for this is the limited frequency response, which was confined at first between about and Hz, enough to give a good representation of the frequencies constituting vocal colour, but not enough to give a good approximation of most instruments.
It helped that high voices could also generate a lot of energy. Closest in effectiveness were wind instruments, with strings far behind. Consequently, most of the earliest recordings are of singers, followed by military bands. Pieces had to be rescored, replacing lower strings with wind—hence the ever-present tuba pumping the bass in opera arias. In addition, violins, when used at all, were routinely replaced from about by Stroh violins, a device invented by Augustus Stroh that played like a violin but replaced the body with a diaphragm attached to a horn, which amplified the upper frequencies.
There are several in Plate 2. Singers were required to exaggerate vowels, roll their Rs, sing S as Sh, 29 and had to maintain the most even tone possible, at the same time as moving towards and away from the horn as required.
In these sorts of conditions, anything like a normal musical performance must have been extremely hard to produce. All this we need to bear in mind when listening to the results; it may have important consequences for the kinds of things we can safely say about details of performances.
The violin part is a study in unrestrained portamento, the harmonium piety in sound. With singer and all the instruments crowded round the horn the balance is curious, the violin a little distant perhaps fortunately and the harmonium a little closer than one might wish. This noise had several sources including problems with the recording machinery, the nature of the materials of which the disc is made, imperfections in and damage to the disc surface, and the misfit of stylus to groove.
One might otherwise have been tempted, given the poor sound reproduction at this date, to assume it a piano, which just goes to show how careful one has to be. The identification in this case comes from the original record label.
Sound File 5a wav file offers the same transfer, this time with digital noise reduction.
Sound Recording Basics For Video Production
The story of sound recording, and reproduction, began in , when the man of a thousand patents, Thomas Edison, invented the phonograph. In essence, his machine consisted of a sheet of tinfoil wrapped around a cylindrical drum which, when turned by a handle, both rotated and moved laterally. As it moved it passed under a touching metal stylus, attached to one side of a diaphragm. On the other side of the diaphragm was a small mouthpiece into which the operator spoke.
The 4 high-quality microphone channels are able to power studio condenser microphones as well as conventional dynamic microphones. You can quickly connect microphones for you and your guests with automatic level setting and one-touch recording to a microSD card. You can even select your favourite colours for the pad illumination. Have a remote guest you want to interview?
Production Sound Mixer & Location Sound Recordist
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The Changing Sound of Music: Approaches to Studying Recorded Musical Performances
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A Brief History of Recording to ca. 1950
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Five "mini case studies" of UK collections that have run preservation and access projects for sound and moving image content are included. The report itself provides a "deep dive" discussing a wider range of issues and practice in greater depth with extensive further reading and advice Wright, It is recommended to readers who need a more advanced level briefing on the topic and practice. The audiovisual domain is unique in that digitization is routinely critical to preservation. Audiovisual digitization for preservation is so pervasive that the two words have come to be used interchangeably. Audio and video need digitization for the very survival of their content, owing to the obsolescence of playback equipment and decay and damage of physical items, whether analogue or digital. The basic technology issue for collections of moving images and sound is the necessity to digitize all content currently sitting on shelves.
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Sound recording and reproduction
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We Partner with Top Video Production Manufacturers
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End-to-end solutions for content creation. Experts at work.
Я не умер. Он с трудом открыл глаза и увидел первые солнечные лучи. Беккер прекрасно помнил все, что произошло, и опустил глаза, думая увидеть перед собой своего убийцу. Но того человека в очках нигде не. Были другие люди. Празднично одетые испанцы выходили из дверей и ворот на улицу, оживленно разговаривая и смеясь. Халохот, спустившись вниз по улочке, смачно выругался.
Playback and Recording
Черт возьми! - Он отшвырнул паяльник и едва не подавился портативным фонариком. - Дьявольщина. Джабба начал яростно отдирать каплю остывшего металла.