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Units building general telecommunication, broadcasting and television

Units building general telecommunication, broadcasting and television

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Fcc Cable Rules

Access Ancillary arrangements tend to have aggregation and user authentication capabilities. An access-independent VoIP service is provided independent of the underlying Internet access service operating and providing identical service features and similar quality over any Internet access service of sufficient bandwidth.

That single entity may be a business, business unit, group, organisation, private individual, or other unit. Multiple layers of accounts are sometimes maintained, particularly in the case of business units or franchises billed separately but whose relationship to a single corporate entity is tracked. In the context of the CRTC monitoring process, such accounts are usually enumerated at the most disaggregated lowest level available.

French: compte. Per-minute accounting rates are designed to enable revenue for international calls to be shared between the operator in the country that originates traffic and the operator in the country that delivers the traffic; because accounting rates theoretically define the full cost of each international call, a settlement rate of one-half of each accounting rate is normally assigned to be paid by the originating service provider to the terminating service provider.

At the end of each year, each pair of service providers under the accounting system settles its international interconnection payments, and the service provider with the negative balance of trade pays the net difference to the service provider with the positive balance of trade. With private intercarrier arrangements and FCC benchmark rates, the accounting rate system is today one of three major systems used to determine international interconnection payments. Advertised throughput may be, but is not necessarily, guaranteed contractually to the purchasing customer.

French: amortissement. A communications protocol that uses radio frequencies in the MHz megahertz frequency band to provide mobile telecom services, including interoperability with the wireline PSTN public switched telephone network. French: annualisation. A common annualization basis is the thirteen-point average, calculated as the mean of data points at an equivalent day for thirteen consecutive months, such as the first day of January to January. Application is the third of the three-slice vertical capacity-connectivity-applications model used in the CRTC's telecom monitoring process, and corresponds to layers four and above in the OSI reference model.

French: application. AS : Autonomous System. In BGP routing, an Autonomous System is a collection of Intent Protocol routers, identified by their IP prefixes, whose single and clearly-defined routing policy is coordinated by an administrative entity formed by one or more network operators. In order to qualify for an AS assignment, an Internet network must normally have at least two separate connections to the Internet. AS Numbers began at 1 and ran to over at this writing.

ATM : Asynchronous Transfer Mode a high bandwidth, low-delay, connection-oriented, packet-like switching and multiplexing technique. French: MTA. The ARPU values presented in the telecommunications monitoring report are based on average annual monthly data. French: revnus moyens par utilisateur RMPU.

ARPM is commonly used by wireless and long distance service providers. See also Internet backbone, long-haul backbone, short-haul backbone, voice backbone.

French: dorsale. French: bilan. At the capacity layer, bandwidth is measured with regard to theoretical maximum throughput based on existing technology; at the connectivity layer, bandwidth is measured with regard to the network segment's maximum throughput based on the provisioned, installed equipment in service.

French: bande passante. It serves as a bridge between all mobile users in a cell and connects mobile calls to the mobile switching center. French: station de base. The FCC created benchmark rates after judging that the settlement rates U.

Benchmark rates were developed according to a "tariffed component price" methodology which grouped countries into upper income countries, upper-middle income countries, lower-middle income countries, and lower income countries.

See also accounting rate, international interconnection payment. BDU revenues include revenues from basic programming service packages, discretionary programming service packages programming services not on the basic service and exempt and non-programming services. French: Revenus des EDR.

An Internet network operator's ability to route traffic to and from other Internet ASes therefore requires the ability to use BGP routing. BGP is often sold bundled with Internet access as Internet transport, especially as a wholesale product.

French: acheminement BGP. In voice calls, billed minutes correspond to conversation minutes, since they exclude call set-up time and call signalling. See also originating minute and terminating minute.

See also service address. French: adresse de facturation. See also generic name. French: nom de marque. Some definitions fix this threshold at 1. In the context of the CRTC's telecommunications monitoring process, the term "broadband" is not used with regard to data collection; instead, a distinction is established between narrowband speed in either direction of up to Kbps and high-speed speed in either direction of over Kbps Internet access. French: large bande. French: Forfait. If a bundle includes contribution-eligible and non-contribution eligible revenues, the bundling rules apply as per Orders CRTC and Commercial and institutional customers include businesses, such as financial and non-financial commercial enterprises and crown corporations; public institutions, such as hospitals, schools, and universities; and government bodies, including the federal, provincial, territorial, and municipal tiers.

French: compte d'affaires. See Cable Modem. Because cable modem networks operate as a shared broadcast medium, the bandwidth available to each cable modem is a function of what the other cable modems also connected to the CMTS are doing, but is generally similar to that provided by DSL connections. Calling card based long distance, a form of dial-around, is a two-step method for selecting a long distance service provider on a call-by-call basis.

The caller first dials an access number to enter the non-PICed service provider's network, then dials the destination number from within that service provider's network. A postpaid calling card is usually provided by a long distance provider to its subscribers, especially where the subscriber's voice wireline service is PICed to that provider.

A prepaid calling card is usually purchased; charges are deducted for long distance calls used on the account whose access numbers are provided on that account until the account value has been depleted. Charges may be deducted from the prepaid account for the subscriber's use of a toll-free access number in addition to charges associated with the destination number.

French: carte d'appel. Capacity is the first of the three-slice capacity-connectivity-applications model used in the CRTC's telecom monitoring process, and corresponds to layer one, or the physical layer, in the OSI reference model; capacity bandwidth is usually measured with regard to theoretical maximum throughput based on existing technology. A spread spectrum air interface protocol that uses radio frequencies to provide mobile telecom services, including interoperability with the wireline PSTN public switched telephone network.

French: AMRC. A specification for a packet-switched, narrowband TDMA overlay network designed for wide-area wireless data communication. Central Office CO : a room or building equipped so that network access lines terminating there may be interconnected together and to other portions of the PSTN as required.

See also local calling area. Centrex : a business telephone service offered by a service provider that permits direct inward dialling to a customer's extension, transfer of incoming calls from one extension to another, and identification of extension telephones for billing of long-distance calls. Centrex is comparable in features to PBX service, but is based on switching equipment usually located partly Centrex CU or wholly Centrex CO on the service provider's premises. French: Centrex. Expressed in the wireless industry as a rate per month for a given measurement period; the subscriber units disconnected divided by the average number of units of the network.

French: taux de resiliation. An eleven character alphanumeric descriptor used to identify switches, points of interconnection, and other categories of telephony network elements and their locations. The CLLI code consists of 4 main identifiers. The first four digits are an abbreviation for the city it is located in; the fifth and sixth digits identify the province it is located in; the seventh and eighth digits identify the building it is located in; and the last three digits identify the type of switch or equipment.

CMA : see census metropolitan area. French: RMR. Coaxial cable is the most common type of cabling used for network access lines that deliver television and other audio-visual signals into customer premises. Two-way, or full-duplex, coaxial access lines allow a duplex high-speed Internet to be deployed over the cable using a cable modem system using a hybrid fibre-coax network, buttelephone-return coax subscriptions may also be counted as narrowband, wideband, or broadband Internet subscriptions.

See also optical fibre. Compliance Statement : TSPs are required to provide a compliance statement attesting to the accuracy of the financial information being provided including the Annual Revenue Report, any supporting forms and the financial statements.

If a TSP has audited financial statements, then the TSP's external auditor must attest to the accuracy of the financial information being provided. If a TSP has unaudited financial statements, then the TSP can either provide an affidavit signed by two officers of the company, with one being the company's chief financial officer, or have an external auditor attest to the accuracy of the financial information being provided.

Connectivity is the second of the three-slice vertical capacity-connectivity-applications model used in the CRTC's telecom monitoring procses, and corresponds to layers two data link and three network in the OSI reference model.

Although contribution revenues are related to local voice service revenues, they are considered a separate line item, and should not be reported as a subset of voice wireline except where explicitly instructed. French: contribution. Contribution-Eligible Revenues: Canadian telecommunications service revenues less certain specific deductions including retail Internet revenue, retail paging revenue and terminal equipment revenue.

French: cuivre. Information is transmitted over optical fibre using light pulses—which is why unused fibre is dark. Data applications are available on a variety of platforms, including mobile telephones; examples of mobile data applications include SMS and WAP. The data link layer provides the functional and procedural means to enable the moving of data in and out across a physical network segment, transforming a raw transmission facility into a telecommunications network.

ATM, frame relay, and X. Two types of dial-around exist:. French: composition Internet. A distributed application for registering alphanumeric domain names, like "www. French: DNS. Where a mobile call combines two types of long distance segment, the call is accounted for according to the longest-distance segment; one and only minute of long distance is counted for each billed minute of air time.

Downstream : in Internet access, traffic handled at the service provider end and terminating to the customer. French: aval.

Telecom Notice of Consultation CRTC 2019-219

Radio waves are a type of electromagnetic radiation best-known for their use in communication technologies, such as television, mobile phones and radios. These devices receive radio waves and convert them to mechanical vibrations in the speaker to create sound waves. The radio-frequency spectrum is a relatively small part of the electromagnetic EM spectrum. The EM spectrum is generally divided into seven regions in order of decreasing wavelength and increasing energy and frequency, according to the University of Rochester. The common designations are radio waves, microwaves , infrared IR , visible light, ultraviolet UV , X-rays and gamma-rays.

Trends in Telecommunications Technologies. In this work, we will discuss the importance of propagation models when designing new broadcast networks. We will hence consider the Island of Mauritius as a case study.

Fcc Cable Rules. FCC repeals net neutrality rules designed to provide equal access to internet Protests have erupted online and in the streets as everyday Americans worry that cable and phone companies will be. Revisions to the Cable Formula and the formula for pole attachment rates in conduit systems adopted in the Report and Order will apply to attachments made by cable systems and telecommunications carriers, until the new rules for attachments by telecommunications carriers providing telecommunications services established under the. Everytime I call Comcast and read them "Use your own set-top box without extra charge.

CUA60615 Advanced Diploma of Screen and Media (Broadcast Television)

Event The future of radio is multiplatform. Take a look. New guidelines from the Journalism Trust Initiative promote transparency and accountability of news media - and will reward compliance with professional A total The EBU will be enabling audiences to access high-quality curated concerts, operas and recordings from one of the world's greatest composers. EBU looks forward to working with the new European Commission in particular on media and democracy and puts forward 11 policy priorities for the new Our new report — All Things Being Equal — has been produced by public service media for public service media and aims to share best practice from In a joint conference held on 3 December, EBU and other media sector organisations outlined views and priorities for new European legislative term. See presentations. We'll send highlights directly to your inbox every month.

Telecommunications Glossary

Jump to navigation. Objectionable Programming. It provides a brief overview of the regulation of broadcast radio and television licensees, describing how the FCC authorizes broadcast stations, the various rules relating to broadcast programming and operations that stations must comply with, and the essential obligation of licensees that their stations serve their local communities. To do this, each non-exempt station licensee must identify the needs and problems and then specifically treat these local matters in the news, public affairs, political and other programming that it airs.

The employer is responsible for the periodic retesting of all insulating gloves, blankets, and other rubber insulating equipment.

The telecommunications sector is framed by Law no. Telecommunications shall hence be understood as the transmission, emission or reception of symbols, signs, writing, images, sounds or information of any nature by wire, radio, electricity or other electromagnetic systems. Law no.

latest news from Itelco

Access Ancillary arrangements tend to have aggregation and user authentication capabilities. An access-independent VoIP service is provided independent of the underlying Internet access service operating and providing identical service features and similar quality over any Internet access service of sufficient bandwidth. That single entity may be a business, business unit, group, organisation, private individual, or other unit.

SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: How does Satellite Television work? - ICT #11

Terrestrial television is a term which refers to modes of television broadcasting which do not involve satellite transmission or via underground cables. Terrestrial television broadcasting dates back to the very beginnings of television as a medium itself and there was virtually no other method of television delivery until the s with the beginnings of cable television, or community antenna television CATV. The first non-terrestrial method of delivering television signals that in no way depended on a signal originating from a traditional terrestrial source began with the use of communications satellites during the s and s of the twentieth century. The analogue television picture is "drawn" several times on the screen 25 in PAL system as a whole each time, as in a motion picture film, regardless of the content of the image. Satellite television is television signals delivered by means of communications satellites and received by satellite dishes and set-top boxes. In many areas of the world it provides a wide range of channels and services, often to areas that are not serviced by terrestrial or cable providers.

The Public and Broadcasting

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Jan 25, - The Regulation does not apply to satellite television reception (DVB-S) or 11) backbone cabling is a general term for cabling between the building dis- apartment telecommunications outlets, broadcast outlets and other ap- adapter units of the terminating blocks of the building distributor of a prop-.

Telecommunications Regulation: Cable, Broadcasting, Satellite, and the Internet, with its special emphasis on the Telecommunications Act of , is the most comprehensive treatise available on local, state, and federal regulation of these emerging modes of telecommunications. Formerly known as Cable Television Law , the treatise features detailed discussions of the topics at the heart of the tension between telephone, data, and video regulation. With its coverage of the latest developments, established law, and historical background, Telecommunications Regulation: Cable, Broadcasting, Satellite, and the Internet is a complete reference resource for both in-house and outside counsel to television, telephone, cable, satellite, broadcasting, computer and online companies. First published in

Telecommunication is the transmission of signs, signals, messages, words, writings, images and sounds or information of any nature by wire , radio , optical or other electromagnetic systems. It is transmitted through a transmission medium , such as over physical media, for example, over electrical cable , or via electromagnetic radiation through space such as radio or light. Since the Latin term communicatio is considered the social process of information exchange, the term telecommunications is often used in its plural form because it involves many different technologies.

Qualified technical television experts are keenly sought after in Australia and overseas. They work behind the scenes on the complex technical elements involved in delivering television programs to viewers, such as capturing vision and sound; lighting; creating graphics and special effects and managing transmissions from studios and live venues. This qualification is designed to equip the next generation of television technical professionals with real-life practical experience. Industry partners contribute to course content and training delivery and as a student you will observe broadcast technical managers and freelance professionals on actual, live-to-air broadcasts.

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Jump to navigation. The Federal Communications Commission first established rules in for cable systems which received signals by microwave antennas. In , the Commission established rules for all cable systems whether or not served by microwave. Southwestern Cable Co. The Court ruled that "the Commission has reasonably concluded that regulatory authority over CATV is imperative if it is to perform with appropriate effectiveness certain of its responsibilities.

During its existence it had three names: People's Commissariat for Posts and Telegraphs —32 , People's Commissariat for Communications —46 and Ministry of Communications — It had authority over the postal , telegraph and telephone communications as well as public radio , technical means of radio and television broadcasting , and the distribution of periodicals in the country. In , the Soviet Union was formed. Its founding document stated that, among different areas, "jurisdiction of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics , as represented by its supreme bodies shall be":. In , the People's Commissariat for Posts and Telegraphs set up a mobile postal service, providing it to rural localities.

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  1. Yoshakar

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