Units plant fragrances, synthetic
Perfumes encompass a wide variety of ingredients, which are tailored for specific occasions and seasons. The history of perfumes goes back 5, years to the ancient Egyptians who originally used them in religious ceremonies. Making a perfume requires extensive knowledge in organic chemistry as well as a creative approach to combining disparate extracts into a single perfume with layers of fragrances. Perfumes have their roots in scented gums such as frankincense and myrrh, which were used as incense during religious rituals. The ancient Egyptians also used perfumes during the embalming process. Scented unguents were developed by steeping herbs such as peppermint or flowers such as rose in an oil until the essence was infused.VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Don't Buy these Fragrances for Men
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The influence of fragrances such as perfumes and room fresheners on the psychophysiological activities of humans has been known for a long time, and its significance is gradually increasing in the medicinal and cosmetic industries. A fragrance consists of volatile chemicals with a molecular weight of less than Da that humans perceive through the olfactory system.
In humans, about active olfactory receptor genes are devoted to detecting thousands of different fragrance molecules through a large family of olfactory receptors of a diverse protein sequence. The sense of smell plays an important role in the physiological effects of mood, stress, and working capacity. Electrophysiological studies have revealed that various fragrances affected spontaneous brain activities and cognitive functions, which are measured by an electroencephalograph EEG.
The EEG is a good temporal measure of responses in the central nervous system and it provides information about the physiological state of the brain both in health and disease. The EEG power spectrum is classified into different frequency bands such as delta 0. A quantitative EEG uses computer software to provide the topographic mapping of the brain activity in frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital brain regions. It is well known that decreases of alpha and beta activities and increases of delta and theta activities are associated with brain pathology and general cognitive decline.
In the last few decades, many scientific studies were conducted to investigate the effect of inhalation of aroma on human brain functions. The studies have suggested a significant role for olfactory stimulation in the alteration of cognition, mood, and social behavior. This review aims to evaluate the available literature regarding the influence of fragrances on the psychophysiological activities of humans with special reference to EEG changes.
The aroma components from natural products have been used for mental, spiritual and physical healing since the beginning of recorded history. Many ancient civilizations, including Egypt, China and India, have used aromatherapy as a popular complementary and alternative therapy for more than thousands of years [ 1 ].
In traditional medicine as well as in aromatherapy and herbal medicine, essential oils and fragrance compounds have been used for the treatments of various psychological and physical disorders such as headaches, pain, insomnia, eczema, stress-induced anxiety, depression and digestive problems [ 2 , 3 ]. In recent years, various studies have revealed that olfactory stimulation through fragrance inhalation exerts various psychophysiological effects on human beings.
There are various methods available to administer the fragrances in small quantities, including inhalation, massage or simple applications on the skin surface and, sometimes, they can be taken internally [ 4 , 5 ]. In our daily life, several fragrances appear and a sense of smell plays an important role in the physiological effects of mood, stress, and working capacity.
In the olfactory process, the fragrant molecules in the air attach to the cilia of olfactory receptors in the olfactory epithelium, located in the nasal cavity. Then the guanine nucleotide binding protein G-protein coupled receptors GPCR are activated and electrical signals are generated.
Subsequently, the electrical signals are transmitted to the brain by olfactory sensory neurons via olfactory bulb and higher olfactory cortex [ 5 , 6 ]. Consequently, these electrical signals modulate the brain functions including memory, thoughts, and emotions. Many studies describe that the inhalation of fragrances highly affect the brain function since the fragrance compounds are able to cross the blood-brain barrier and interact with receptors in the central nervous system [ 7 , 8 ].
Furthermore, many studies have suggested that the olfactory stimulation of fragrances produces immediate changes in physiological parameters such as blood pressure, muscle tension, pupil dilation, skin temperature, pulse rate and brain activity [ 5 , 9 , 10 ]. Hence, the studies in relation to the role of fragrances in the brain functions of healthy and diseased subjects have significantly increased in the past decades.
There are numerous techniques that have been developed to examine the brain function. The emotional and behavior alterations by fragrance inhalation have been assessed by different electrophysiological methods such as electroencephalograph EEG , contingent negative variation, near infrared spectroscopy, and functional magnetic resonance imaging [ 5 , 11 , 12 ]. Among them, EEG is the best temporal measure of responses in the central nervous system and is susceptible to alteration during exposure to fragrance.
Furthermore, the perfect classification of electrical activity for a particular state of human brain supports the diagnoses of neurological diseases. Previous studies reported that the odors affected spontaneous brain activities and cognitive functions were estimated by EEG [ 13 , 14 , 15 , 16 , 17 ].
The EEG power spectra were estimated by using Fast Fourier Transform that allows the quantitative analysis of electrical signals in the total as well as in single frequency bands. The EEG spectrum is a complex signal resulting from postsynaptic potentials of cortical pyramidal cells and these signals can be recorded by the metal electrodes placed on the surface of scalp [ 18 ].
Based on the above knowledge, we present an overview of scientific experimentation in regards to psychophysiological effects of fragrances with special reference to EEG studies. The fragrances are mainly volatile organic compounds with characteristic, usually pleasant odors. They have been used for thousands of years to deliver a variety of benefits, especially for the physical and psychological well-being of humans.
In the s, Rene-Maurice Gattefosse, a French chemist, coined the term aromatherapy, referring specifically to the use of natural fragrance essential oils to treat injury and disease [ 4 ]. Nowadays, a variety of consumer products such as candles, perfumes and other personal care products, room fresheners, detergents, etc.
The aromatic properties of these products play a major role in the psychophysiological functions of human beings [ 1 ]. The fragrance materials are exposed to consumers ranging from skin contact to inhalation. The fragrance components have some specific molecular properties in order to provide sensory properties.
It has a sufficiently high vapor pressure, low polarity, some ability to dissolve in fat and surface activity. Fragrance materials vary from highly complex mixtures to single chemicals. The fragrance molecules are mainly limited to the molecular weight of to Da but within that range, there are essentially a vast number of fragrant components and their molecular structures are highly varied. The natural fragrance materials are mainly obtained from plants, resins, animal secretion and their metabolites [ 19 ].
Among the various natural fragrant components, essential oils are the main therapeutic agents, which are said to be a highly concentrated volatile and complex mixture of aromatic components obtained from different organs of the plant. There are about 17, aromatic plant species from different angiospermic families producing essential oils, particularly Lamiaceae, Rutaceae, Myrtaceae, Zingiberaceae and Asteraceae.
The essential oils contain approximately 20—60 different components at various concentrations. In general, these major components are responsible for the biological potentials of the essential oils.
The components of essential oils are classified into two major groups terpenes and aromatic compounds based on their biosynthetic origin. The terpenes are the largest group of natural fragrances. The classification of terpenes is mainly based on the number of isoprene units present in their structure.
Depending on the number of C 5 units, the terpenes are classified into hemiterpenes C 5 , monoterpenes C 10 , sesquiterpenes C 15 and diterpenes C Based on the functional groups, the terpenes and other aromatic compounds have been classified into hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, phenols, esters, ethers, etc.
Thousands of different terpene and aromatic structures occur in perfume ingredients, both natural and synthetic. In aromatherapy, the medicinal and aromatic plants including bergamot, caraway, eucalyptus, geranium, juniper, lavender, lemon, lemongrass, mint, orange, peppermint, pine, rosemary, sage, tea tree, thyme and ylang-ylang have been used to cure a variety of physical and psychological disorders.
These plants contain various bioactive monoterpene and sesquiterpene components along with other aromatic components. Table 1 shows the names of some important essential oil-bearing plants with their major bioactive components [ 1 , 21 , 22 ]. Some of the fragrance components from animal origin such as macrocyclic ketones and esters as well as aromatic nitro compounds and polycyclic aromatics group of musk fragrances are also widely used in the perfume industries.
The natural fragrances from plants and animals were predominantly used until the end of the 19th century. At present, synthetic fragrances are increasingly applied due to the constant and reproducible quality over natural fragrances [ 24 ]. Olfaction is a prehistoric sense for humans and animals. It permits vertebrates and other organisms with an olfactory system to identify food, mates, predators, and provides both sensual pleasure as well as warnings of danger, such as spoiled food or chemical hazards.
In humans and animals, it is one of the important means by which our environment communicates with us. Previous studies stated that even a small amount of fragrance compounds taken by respiration causes indirect physical effect by activating olfactory memory.
In addition, the fragrance and the sense of smell are very important in the direction of human behavior [ 7 , 8 ]. The olfactory system contains a sensory organ olfactory epithelium and specific olfactory brain regions olfactory bulb and higher olfactory cortex. The olfactory mucosa is the region which is located in the superior and posterior part of the nasal cavity, especially for the detection of fragrant molecules.
It includes the olfactory epithelium and its underlying lamina propria. In general, the olfactory epithelium undergoes a continual process of neurogenesis in which new neurons are constantly generated throughout adult life, and this is the reason for discontinuity and spread of the olfactory mucosa [ 25 ]. The olfactory receptor cells contain cilia where molecular reception with the fragrance occurs and sensory transduction starts [ 26 ].
At one side, the olfactory receptor neurons extend through the epithelium to contact fragrant molecules in the air. At the other end, the olfactory receptor cells in the epithelium form axons to penetrate the cribriform plate of bone, reaching the olfactory bulb of the brain where they converge to terminate with post-synaptic cells to form synaptic structures called glomeruli.
Each glomerulus receives input from olfactory sensory neurons expressing the same type of odorant receptor. The glomeruli are connected in groups that converge into mitral cells and tufted cells. The mitral cells and tufted cells are the primary efferent projection neurons of the olfactory bulb.
From the mitral cells, the olfactory information is transmitted directly to the higher olfactory cortex in the corticomedial amygdala portion of the brain through olfactory tract where the signaling process is decoded and olfactory interpretation and response occurs Figure 1 [ 27 , 28 , 29 ]. Schematic representation of the olfactory process.
GPCR: guanine nucleotide binding protein coupled receptors. The olfactory process begins when fragrances from the atmosphere enter into the nose and attach to the cilia of receptor cells. In general, fragrance stimulation of olfactory receptor cells in the nose involves interaction of fragrance molecules with olfactory-receptor proteins. Buck and Axel [ 30 ] found the family of transmembrane proteins believed to be the odor receptors and some of the genes that encode them.
They found that the proteins contained the seven-helical transmembrane structure and contained sequence resemblance to other members of the G-protein-coupled receptor family. The previous studies reported that humans have about active odorant receptor genes and about odorant receptor pseudogenes.
The olfactory events undergo two different G-protein-coupled transduction mechanisms; one activating adenylyl cyclase to generate cyclic adenosine monophosphate, the other activating phospholipase C to produce inositol trisphosphate. Then they open channels admitting calcium, sodium and chlorine ions into the cell, leading to depolarization of the membrane and an action potential.
Then the olfactory sensory neurons send the electrical signals to the brain via olfactory bulb and higher olfactory cortex [ 6 , 27 , 29 ]. The discovery of the olfactory receptor genes provides new genetic and molecular techniques for pursuing the organization of the olfactory pathway in the brain.
The olfactory system is described by relatively direct connections to brain structures involved in memory and emotion such as the hippocampus, thalamus, and frontal cortex. The olfactory tract carries the axons leaving the olfactory bulb and projects to the structures collectively called the primary olfactory cortex [ 26 ]. The piriform cortex is the largest of the olfactory areas and occupies a central position in the primary olfactory cortex.
The piriform cortex in humans appears to be involved in odor recognition memory. The other important cortical primary olfactory areas include the anterior cortical nucleus of the amygdala, the periamygdaloid cortex, and the entorhinal cortex [ 31 , 32 ]. Olfactory information is transmitted from the primary olfactory cortex to other cortical and subcortical areas. Further, the periamygdaloid and the entorhinal cortex provide olfactory information to the amygdala and hippocampus [ 28 , 29 ].
An EEG is a recording of fluctuating electrical waveforms at the scalp of human brain. Diagnostic applications of EEG include epilepsy, disturbances of consciousness, brain death, dementia, cerebrovascular or structural brain disease, and other psychological disorders. The practical application of EEG holds great promise for increasing our understanding of human central nervous system activity in relation to the influence of fragrances on brain function [ 33 , 34 ].
In recent years, a number of advanced techniques have become available to study the influence of fragrances on brain function. The psychophysical measures and brain imaging techniques are widely used to detect brain activity.
Microbiology & Experimentation
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Synthetic resin is typically manufactured using a chemical polymerization process. This process then results in the creation of polymers that are more stable and homogeneous than naturally occurring resin. Since they are more stable and are cheaper, various forms of synthetic resin are used in a variety of products such as plastics, paints, varnishes, and textiles. There are various kinds of synthetic resins; acetal resins, amino resins, casein resins, epoxy resins, hydrocarbon resins, polyamide resins, etc.
Natural Perfume vs. Synthetic Perfume ?
Perfumers Alcohol is a special formulation which can be used by both professionals and amateurs who wish to make perfumes Perfumers Alcohol is a special formulation which can be used by both professionals and amateurs who wish to make perfumes. It allows the simple addition and blending of essential oils and fragrances to produce crystal clear solutions. Using these perfumery methods will help you take your homemade fragrances to a more professional level, in fact, if you use these techniques, you could actually sell your end result! The basic professional perfume making process is the same as the amateur perfuming process, but the materials are not. Absolutes are stronger and smell more like the plant than essential oils, and are used extensively in perfumery. Some plants are too delicate to be pressed or steam-distilled; making an essential oil out of them is impossible. Jasmine is one of these plants. The absolutes are expensive, but a little goes a long way. They are much more concentrated than essential oils.
Why Natural Fragrances Touch your Soul
Regret for the inconvenience: we are taking measures to prevent fraudulent form submissions by extractors and page crawlers. Received: July 22, Published: January 7, A biotechnological approach to microbial based perfumes and flavours. J Microbiol Exp. DOI:
Electroplating is an electro deposition process for producing a dense, uniform, and adherent coating, usually of metal or alloys, upon a surface by the act of electric current. Electroplating is primarily used to change the surface properties of an object e. Electrochemical deposition is generally used for the growth of metals and conducting metal oxides because of the following advantages: i the thickness and morphology of the nanostructure can be precisely controlled by adjusting the electrochemical parameters, ii relatively uniform and compact deposits can be synthesized in template-based structures, iii higher deposition rates are obtained, and iv the equipment is inexpensive due to the non-requirements of either a high vacuum or a high reaction temperature. An electrochemical process where metal ions are transferred from a solution and are deposited as a thin layer onto surface of a cathode.
Bolero Ozon. An adhesive is a material used for holding two surfaces together. A useful way to classify adhesives is by the way they react chemically after they have been applied to the surfaces to be joined. There is a huge range of adhesives, and one appropriate for the materials being joined must be chosen.
Bolero Ozon. Herbal Cosmetics Handbook 3rd Revised Edition. H Panda. Cosmetics have been in utilization for more than thousands years. More commonly known as make- up, it includes a host of skin products like foundation, lip colors etc.
Ancient texts and archaeological excavations show the use of perfumes in some of the earliest human civilizations. Modern perfumery began in the late 19th century with the commercial synthesis of aroma compounds such as vanillin or coumarin , which allowed for the composition of perfumes with smells previously unattainable solely from natural aromatics alone. The word perfume derives from the Latin perfumare , meaning "to smoke through". Perfumery, as the art of making perfumes, began in ancient Mesopotamia , Egypt , the Indus Valley Civilization and maybe Ancient China. It was further refined by the Romans and the Arabs. The world's first-recorded chemist is considered a woman named Tapputi , a perfume maker mentioned in a cuneiform tablet from the 2nd millennium BC in Mesopotamia. In ,  archaeologists uncovered what are believed [ by whom?
Bolero Ozon. Soap is the traditional washing compound made from oil fats and caustic alkali. It is an item of daily necessity as cleaning agent. There are few specialty soaps like the washing soaps, castile soaps, sandal soap, specially flavored soaps, medicated soaps, toilet soaps and baby soaps.
Since the beginning of recorded history, humans have attempted to mask or enhance their own odor by using perfume, which emulates nature's pleasant smells. Many natural and man-made materials have been used to make perfume to apply to the skin and clothing, to put in cleaners and cosmetics, or to scent the air. Because of differences in body chemistry, temperature, and body odors, no perfume will smell exactly the same on any two people.
The natural scents, like their title indicates, are sourced directly from the wild. There are multiple ways to obtain them distillation, hyper-criticized C02 extraction etc. Synthetic fragrances on the other hand, use chemistry and aromatic molecules to create new scents or imitate natural scents. It's through the discovery of synthesis in the XIXth century that perfumery became accessible and began its industrial era. Synthesis enabled creators to develop new scents and increase their range of fragrances.
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